Flashcards in Lipids Deck (16)
What is the 7 step pathway of lipid digestion and absorption?
1. Bile salts emulsify fat
2. Intestinal lipases degrade
3. Fatty Acid absorption and Triacylglycerols formed
5. Lymph circulation
6. LPL in capillaries turn TG into fatty acids and glycerol
7. Oxidation or re-esterfication of fatty acids
Describe the process of Glucagon triggering mobilization of stored triacylglycerols.
1. cAMP pathway turning PKA on
2. PKA activates HSL and Perilipin
3. CGI to disassociate from Perilipin.
4. CGI activates ATGL
5. activated HSL and Perilipin reach cell surface
6. Fatty acids and Glycerol are released into blood
What does ATGL do? HSL? MGL?
ATGL: Convertes Triacylglycerol into diacyl
HSL: Converts diacylglycerol into mono
MGL: Hydrolyzes monoacylglycerol
Insulin inhibits what lipases? Glucagon Activates?
Insulin inhibits ATGL and HL. Glucagon activates it.
Glycerol can enter glycolysis how? At the expense of what?
By glycerol kinase activating it, at the expense of ATP
What is the first step of transporting fatty acids into the cell? Second?
1. Fatty acid needs to be converted to fatty Acyl-CoA.
2. Transporting via carnitine transporter
What inhibits the Acyl-carnitine transferase? What increases this inhibitor?
Malonyl-CoA inhibits. Increased by Insulin.
What are the 4 steps of b-oxidation?
What enzyme catalyzes the first step of b-oxidation? What does it use? Results in?
Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, but using FAD. Results in a trans double bond.
What enzyme catalyzes the second step of b-oxidation? What does it use?
Enoyl-CoA Hydratase, adds in H2O
What enzyme catalyzes the third step of b-oxidation? What does it use?
b-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase. Uses NAD
What enzyme catalyzes the 4th step of b-oxidation? Results in?
Acyl-CoA Acetyltransferase, splitting off the acetyl-CoA
What are the 3 exceptions of b-oxidation?
1. Monosaturated fatty acids
2. Polysaturated fatty acids
3. odd-numbered fatty acids
For monosaturated fatty acids, you need what enzyme to b-oxidize it? This does what?
Need isomerase. This turns cis bonds to trans bonds.
For poly-saturated fatty acids, you need what enzymes to b-oxidize?
Nedd Isomerase and Reductase (reduces cis bonds).