CK L1 mutation and mutagenesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CK L1 mutation and mutagenesis Deck (18)
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1

a mutation is...?






a mutation is also...?

a heritable alteration in a gene or chromosome
(a change in the sequence of nucleotides)

the process that produces the alteration (the source of most alleles)

2

Mutagenesis is...?

the process of mutation generation

3

DNA integrity (two types of stand damage)

single strand damage

double strand damage

4

what components of DNA can be altered / damaged?

all components

e.g bases, strandsva

5

what exogenous sources can cause DNA damage?

> ionising radiation
> free radicals
> UV radiation
> matagenic chemicals
> Anti-cancer drugs

6

what endogenous sources can cause DNA damage?

> replication errors
> free radicals
> transposons (elements of DNA that can move around

7

Exogenous source - Types of Ionising radiation

> X-Ray
> alpha and beta particles
> Gamma rays

8

Exo & Endogenous sources - types of free radicals

UV light
Smoking
Air pollution
Inflammation
Metabolism

9

Exogenous sources- types of UV radiation

> indirect damage via free radicals
> direct damage causes pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)

10

Exogenous sources - type if mutagenic agents

alkylating agents
intercalating agents
Anti-cancer drugs

11

Exogenous sources - mutagenic agent alkylating agent information

> very powerful
> addition of alkyl group to DNA base
> induces mispairing at DNA replication
> leads to base substitutions

12

Exogenous sources - mutagenic agent intercalating agent information

> intercalate between bp of dsDNA
> induces single nucleotide addition/deletion
> leads to frameshift mutations

13

Exogenous sources - mutagenic agent Anti-cancer drugs information

> used to induce cell death
> blocks resolution of Top1-DNA adducts
> causes persistent single strand breaks
> can causes double strand breaks

14

Endogenous sources- DNA replication errors information

types-
> mismatches
> insertions
> deletions

15

how much DNA damage happens per day...?

1 x 10 to the 6 molecular lesions per cell per days

16

Endogenous sources- Transposons information

> specific DNA sequences (>1 gene)
supernumerary (many copies)
> always contained within other DNA molecules
> move around (transpose) as a discrete unit
> move around (transpose) to random sites
> ubiquitous
> may insertionally inactive genes or change gene expression

17

what will happen if...?

1) a transposon jumps in the gene

2) a transposon jumps outside the gene

1) it will activate it

2) it will have no effect

18

what is site-directed mutageneis?

mutations can be made deliberately