Flashcards in Classification of Organisms + Chemical Bonds and Macromolecules Deck (23)
What are bacteria and archae
Unicellular prokaryotes of the domain Monera with no membrane bound organelles
Characteristics of archae
Extremophiles, phospholipid membrane, DNA based genome
Characteristics of Bacteria
DNA based genome, metabolically diverse, human symbiont, peptidoglycan
Ex. E Coli
Characteristics of Eukarya
Membrane bound organelles, unicellular or multicellular, structural diversity
Polymer synthesis _______ (requires/releases) energy, a product of this reaction is ___.
Polymer breakdown _______ (requires/releases) energy, a reactant in this reaction is ___.
Function and structure of Carbohydrates
energy storage, cell structure, cell-cell recognition
Types of bonds in Dissacharides
Glycosidic (covalent bond)
Starch and Glycogen are _________ polysaccharides and their function is _________________.
2. energy storage in plants and animals, respectively
Cellulose and Chitin are _________ polysaccharides and their found in __________________.
2. plant cell wall, insect exoskeleton, respectively
Difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
Saturated: C-C single bonds
Unsaturated: C=C double bonds, cause kinks
Are fats a true polymer
Lipids are hydrophobic, what does that mean?
Aggregate away from water
Have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains (phospholipids)
Functions of steroids
Lipids based on cholesterol, hormones (estrogen/testosterone), membrane fluidity in animals
What are proteins
Polymers of amino acids
The variable group R on proteins can be....
1. non-polar R=CH
2. polar R=OH or SH
3. polar charged acidic R=COO
4. polar charged basic R=NH3
What structure dictates protein folding?
primary structure, and folding dictates function
What are chaperones
proteins that assist in folding of other proteins
Function of nucleic acids
store & transmit hereditary information
Does DNA contain an OH group?
Explain the basic structure of a nucleotide
5C sugar (ribose), nitrogenous base, phosphate