Classification of Organisms + Chemical Bonds and Macromolecules Flashcards Preview

Biology 107 > Classification of Organisms + Chemical Bonds and Macromolecules > Flashcards

Flashcards in Classification of Organisms + Chemical Bonds and Macromolecules Deck (23)
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1

What are bacteria and archae

Unicellular prokaryotes of the domain Monera with no membrane bound organelles

2

Characteristics of archae

Extremophiles, phospholipid membrane, DNA based genome

3

Characteristics of Bacteria

DNA based genome, metabolically diverse, human symbiont, peptidoglycan
Ex. E Coli

4

Characteristics of Eukarya

Membrane bound organelles, unicellular or multicellular, structural diversity
Ex. Yeast

5

Polymer synthesis _______ (requires/releases) energy, a product of this reaction is ___.

1. requires
2. H2O

6

Polymer breakdown _______ (requires/releases) energy, a reactant in this reaction is ___.

1. releases
2. h2o

7

Function and structure of Carbohydrates

energy storage, cell structure, cell-cell recognition

8

Types of bonds in Dissacharides

Glycosidic (covalent bond)

9

Starch and Glycogen are _________ polysaccharides and their function is _________________.

1. nutritional
2. energy storage in plants and animals, respectively

10

Cellulose and Chitin are _________ polysaccharides and their found in __________________.

1. structural
2. plant cell wall, insect exoskeleton, respectively

11

Difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

Saturated: C-C single bonds
Unsaturated: C=C double bonds, cause kinks

12

Are fats a true polymer

No

13

Lipids are hydrophobic, what does that mean?

Aggregate away from water

14

Define amphipathic

Have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains (phospholipids)

15

Functions of steroids

Lipids based on cholesterol, hormones (estrogen/testosterone), membrane fluidity in animals

16

What are proteins

Polymers of amino acids

17

The variable group R on proteins can be....

1. non-polar R=CH
2. polar R=OH or SH
3. polar charged acidic R=COO
4. polar charged basic R=NH3

18

What structure dictates protein folding?

primary structure, and folding dictates function

19

What are chaperones

proteins that assist in folding of other proteins

20

Function of nucleic acids

store & transmit hereditary information

21

Does DNA contain an OH group?

No

22

Explain the basic structure of a nucleotide

5C sugar (ribose), nitrogenous base, phosphate

23

What are the pyrimidines and what are the purines

Pyrimidines: single ringed base, T,C,U
Purines: double ringed base, A,G