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Flashcards in Eukaryotic Cell Structure Deck (25)
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Name the organelles in the endomembrane system

Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes


Function of the nucleus

storage of DNA, site of gene expression


Function of the nucleolus

site of ribosomal subunit assembly (large and small protein components associate with their rRNAs)


When do ribosomes subunits come together

When they leave the nucleus, come together in cytoplasm (protect DNA)


Function and structure of the nuclear envelope

Separates nucleoplasm from cytoplasm (protect DNA)
Consists of two lipid bilayers + nuclear lamina


In DNA packaging, what histone stacks the nucleosomes



What happens to chromatin during packaging

turns into chromosome


Difference between centromere, chromatid, chromatin, chromosome, centrosome, centrioles

Centromere: where sister chromatids are linked
Chromatid: half a chromosome
Chromosome: DNA molecule
Chromatin: DNA & protein, chromosome pre-packaging
Centrosome: organelle, microtubule organizing center
Centrioles: organelle made of tubulin, makes up centrosome


Rough ER are found in the endomembrane system, they are covered in _________, these are called ____________, they make proteins destined for ____________________.

1. ribosomes
2. Bound ribosomes
3. endomembrane system


Function of rough ER

site of protein synthesis for proteins that function within the endomembrane system
site of protein control (chaperones)


Where are free ribosomes found

In the cytoplasm


Function of the smooth ER

ion storage, phospholipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, detoxification of drugs and alcohol


Function of the Golgi apparatus

receives cargo from ER, sorts to different destinations (lysosome, plasma membrane, back to ER), packages cargo into vesicles
"fed ex" of the cell


What are the two models of Golgi Trafficking, explain briefly

1) Vesicle trafficking: vesicle fuses with cis, cargo is transferred from cis to medial to trans Golgi in vesicles
2) Cisternal Maturation: cis becomes medial, medial becomes trans, trans splits into vesicles. New cisternae forms by fusion of vesicles from ER


Function of the lysosome as the "cell stomach", its ideal pH and how it maintains it

digestion of macromolecules from endocytosis, contains hydrolytic enzymes that function best at pH=5 (constantly pumped H+ in to maintain low pH)


Function of lysosome as autophagy

autophagy= self eating
organelle recycling, but also so a cell can commit suicide by rupturing lysosome (apoptosis)


What happens during lysosomal storage disorders

patient lacks enzyme to digest a particular lipid, it accumulates and causes neuronal cell death


Three functions of vacuoles

food vacuoles, contractile vacuoles (pump out excess water), central vacuole (in plants-storage)


Name the organelles not in the endomembrane system

mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton


What are peroxisomes involved in

detox of alcohols, metabolism of fats


Name the different types of fibers in the cytoskeleton

microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments


Function/Structure of microtubules

Compression resistance, polymers of tubulin
ex. Eukaryotic flagellum


Function/Characteristics of Eukaryotic Flagellum

Cell movement, powered by ATP hydrolysis, membrane bound, whip-like, movement generated by dyenin


Structure/Function of Microfilaments, polymer of ____. Motor: _____

polymer of actin, tension resistance, movement (muscular contraction), motor: myosin
ex. Sarcomere (contractile unit of the muscle)


Structure/Function of Intermediate Filaments

many diff subunit types that form rope like filaments, tension resistance
ex. laminin (forms the nuclear lamina)
ex. Keratin: hair and nails