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Flashcards in Clinical Biochem Deck (48):
1

Whend o you see hyponatremia

water retention

2

when do you see hypernatremia

dehydration

3

when do you see hyperkalemia

renal insuffiency

4

what is a dangerous side effect of hyperkalemia

can trigger cardiac arrest without warning

5

what do changes in Ca++ conc indicate

homronal disturbances

6

where is most phosphate stored

bones

7

hyperphosphatemia indicates waht

degenerative bone disease, renal failure

8

why does hypophosphatemia matter

impairs glucose metabolism

9

what does CO2 pressure tell you

info about bicarbonate buffer system

10

how is serum urea/creatinine affected in impaired kidney function

increases

11

how is urine urea/creatinine affect in impaired kidney function

decreases

12

what odes BUN conc test

balance between amino acid degradation/urea production and excretion

13

elevated BUN indicates what

impaired renal excretion

14

increase in serum creatinine indicates waht

problem with GFR

15

uric acid is the end product of what

purine degration

16

when do you see high uric acid conc

problems with renal exretion

17

increased uric acid predisposes you to what

gout

18

indirect bilirubin

not conjugated to glucuronic acid, tightly bound to albumin

19

direct bilirubin

conjugated to glucuronic acids and water solube

20

waht is the normal serum protein conc

7%

21

what produces albumin

liver

22

what makes up 50% of total serum protein

albumin

23

functions of albumin

-bind hydrophobic molecules
-bind calcium
-maintain oncotic pressure

24

what do low albumin levels manifest as

edema

25

what is the most common cause for hypoalbuminemia

liver disease

26

globulin

heteerogeneous mixture of proteins secreted by cells of immune system.

27

what do globubins indicat

funciton of immune system

28

what secretes c-reactive protein

liver

29

what does c-reactive protein indicate

acute metabolic response to injury

30

when do CRP levels rise

6 hours after injury,

31

when is the peak of CRP

48 hours after injury

32

What heart muscle enzymes are released from damaged cardiomyocytes

myoglobin
creatine kinase
AST
troponin
LDH

33

when is myoglobin high

right after a MI

34

when is CK-MB high

early after an MI

35

when is AST high

after CK-MB

36

what are the most sensitive markers for an MI

troponin

37

when is LDH high

several days after an MI

38

what are increased serum levels of AP indicated of

bone or liver disease

39

what is the difference of AP in liver and vone disease

liver disease has high bilirubin, bone doesn't

40

high AST and low ALT indicates waht

heart or other muscle damage

41

high AST and ALT indicates waht

liver damage

42

what does urine analysis test for

glucose
bilirubin
ketone
protein

43

when do you see ketones in urine

uncontroleld diabetes, or stravation

44

when do you see protein in urine

renealse disease, o rfrom blood or leukocytes in urine

45

when do you see bilirubin in urine

biliary obstruction

46

liver function tests, tests what

bilirubine
ALT and AST
alkaline phospahte

47

how is urine osmoliaty affected by renal failure

low in relaure failure

48

high c-peptide is a measure of waht

endogenous production of insuline