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Flashcards in Feast and Famine Deck (35):
1

What are the 3 ways in which metabolic pathways are regulated

-allosteric effectors
-covalent modification
-changes in amount of key enzymes

2

function of acetyl COA

activate pyruvate carboxylase
inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase

3

function of AMP

activate AMPK
inhibit gluconeogensis, protein synthesis, lipogensis, cholesterol synthesis

4

function of cirtrate

activate acetyl-CoA carbozylase (FA synthesis)
inhibits PFK1 and PFK2 (glycolysis)

5

functino of fuctose 2,6 bp

activate PFK1
inhibits F11,6BPase

6

function of fructose 1,6 bp

activate pyruvate kinase

7

function of glucose

actiate glucokinase

8

function of malonyl-CoA

inhibit CPT I (FA degration)

9

functino of cAMP

activate protein kinase A
incrase glycogenolysis, gluconeogensis
inhibit glycolysis, lipogensis

10

affect of fatty acids

induce gene for FA ozidation and keton synthesis by PPRE

11

affect of glucocagon

induces genes for gluconeogensis bia CRE
represses genes for lipid synthesis via CRE

12

affect of insulin

induces genes for lipid syntheiss bia SRE
represses genes for gluconeogensis and FA oxidation via IRE

13

limitations of fatty acids as energy

-requires O2
-can't cross bbb
-can't be converted into glucose

14

advantages of glucose

can be catabolized quickly w/o oxygen
-can cross bbb

15

limitation of glucose

small stores

16

limitations of amino acids

no storage

17

metabolism of RBCs

convert glucose to lactate

18

what do muscles prefer for energy metabolism

fatty acids

19

What else can muscles use for energy

glucose
ketone bodies

20

can muscles function anaerobically

yes, briefly

21

can muscles convert amino acids to glucose

no - happens in liver

22

Does the heart story energy

no

23

can the heart function anaerobically

no

24

what type of fuel does the heart prefer

fatty acids

25

what fuel does the brain use

glucose, in severe stravation it can use ketones

26

what fuel does the liver use

fatty acids, glucose, amino acids, and lactate

27

what does liver store

glycogen

28

excess glucose is converted by the liver into what

VLDLs

29

what releases fatty acids and glycerol

adipose tissue

30

what happens during refeeding

electrolyte problems

31

what 2 conditions need to be considered when refeeding

lack of digestive enzymes
lack of intracellular phosphate

32

after the first 10-20 second of excerise what happens

muscle funciton is driven by ATP/creatine-phospahte reserves

33

after 20 seconds of excerise what happens

muscle function is supported by fatty acid and glucose metabolism

34

what happens after an hour of excerise

metabolism increases fatty acid utilization

35

what happens after 2 hours of exercise

glycogen stores are exhausted and energy is drawn from fatty acid oxidation