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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (36):
1

what percentage of the population has diabetes

8.3%

2

what percentage of people older than 60 have diabetes

26.9%

3

what are the 3 effects of inability to move glucose form ciruclation into energy stories

-energy stores are not refilled after a meal, tissues are chronically starved
-high conc of glucose in the circulation damages blood and renal vessels
-high osmotic pressure of extracellular fluids leads to dehydration of tissues

4

what are the 3 main chronic morbiditeis with diabetes

blindness
nephropahthy
neuropathy

5

what percentage of cases of diabetes are type 1

10-20%

6

what are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes

central obesity
sedentary lifestyle

7

what usually leads to the onset to type I diabetes

viral infection that causes immune system to turn on insulin producing cells

8

what do drugs that treat type II diabetes do

stimulate insulin secretion
sensitize peripheral tissues to insulin
reduce intestinal absorption of glucose
repress gluconeogensis

9

how does insulin sensitivity change during pregnancy

its downregulated to allow for fetal metabolism to compete for glucose

10

how does insulin increase glucose permeability of plasma membranes

increase number of GLUT4 receptors

11

how does insulin affect fatty acid homeostasis

stimulate synthesis of fatty acids adn triglycerid

repress fat mobilization in adipose tissue by inhibiting HSL

12

how does high glucose conc affect protein

spontaneous glycation of protein

13

when do you see sorbitol

when high conc of glucose, polyol pathway generates sorbitol from glucose

14

why is sortibol dangerous

it's osmotically active, draws water into cells, changes cell structure

15

what does the polyol pathway drain

NADPH pool

16

how do you get sorbitol to change into fructose

polyol dehydrogenase

17

when do you get nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

type 2 diabetic with dehydration and hyderglycemia affecting the CNS

18

what can hyperglycemia cause in extremem cases

non0ketotic hyperglycemin hyperosmolar coma (NKHHC)

19

how does insulin affect potassium

stimulates K+ uptake into cells, so you get a drop in serum potassium

20

incrase in serum lipoproteins and fatty acids during hyperlipidemia is due to what two factors

-expression of LPL is regulated by insulin, absence of LIPL are not released from chylomicrons and VLDLs
-absence of inuslin, HSL stays active, so aipocytes keep releasing FAs into ciruclation.

21

how does insulin affect ketons

represses ketone body production

22

when would a type I diabetic experience hypoglycermia

accidently overdosing

23

what forms insulin

pre-proinsulin by proteolytic processing

24

where is mature insuline stored

secretory vesicles

25

what does insulin bind to on the target cell

kinase insulin recptor

26

what does the kinase insule receptor do

phosphorylates itself and IRS1

27

what does the initial phosphorylation reactive activate

kinase cades

28

how does insuline affect glycogen synthase

increase glycogen synthesis

29

how does insulin affect phosphorylase kinase

decrease glycogen degration

30

how does insulin affect glycogen phosphorylase

decrease glycogen degradation

31

how does insulin affect pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and PFK2

incrase glycolysis

32

how does insulin affect fructose 26 bisphosphate

decrease gluconeogensis

33

how does insulin affect acetyl-CoA carboxylase

increase FA synthesis

34

how does insulin affect HMG-CoA reductase

incrase cholesterol synthesis

35

how does insulin affect hSL

decrease mobilization of fat

36

how does insulin affect carntine acyltransferase

decrease ketogensis