Clinical Cardiomyopathy Flashcards Preview

CRP- Cardiology > Clinical Cardiomyopathy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Cardiomyopathy Deck (24):
1

What is restrictive cardiomyopathy also called?

restrictive infiltrative cardiomyopathy= preserved LV dysfunction (ejection fractions are normal, but they signs and symptoms are of heart failure).

2

What is obstructive cardiomyopathy?

idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis= hyperdynamic ventricle and deal with it as a preserved form of heart failure.

3

What do we have to know about TB?

- usually chronic process
- associated with night sweats and cough
- HIV associated in U.S.

4

Does a negative PPD rule out TB pericarditis?

NO

5

How do you treat TB pericarditis?

drain with consideration for biopsy. Needs a window with antiTB Rx.

6

Why can hypothyroidism cause heart failure?

this can also occur after radiation therapy. Heart rate is too slow, you overstretch the heart, and thus your end diastolic volume is too high, meaning you've overstretched the starling curve (shift to the right) and can't contract as well. This means the fluid leaks back into your lungs where the hydrostatic pressure is greater than the oncotic pressure.
This can also lead to a pericardial effusion.

7

Why can hyperthyroidism cause heart failure?

heart rate is too FAST, meaning the heart doesn't have enough time to fill, meaning you're under-stretching the starling curve (shift to the left) and therefore the blood backs up into the lungs.

8

What arrhythmia is associated with hyperthyroidism?

atrial fibrillation

9

How do you treat heart failure as a result of hyperthyroidism?

give a beta blocker because it both slows the heart rate and slows the conversion of T4 to T3, thus reducing the elevated thyroid hormone (T3), which causes the tachycardia.

10

What marks systole in the carotids?

the carotid upstroke

11

Will you see a rapid x descent with acute pericardial effusion?

YES and this causes a restrictive cardiomyopathy.

12

What is Kussmaul's sign?

sign of right ventricular dysfunction. Neck veins fill with inspiration and stay filled through expiration.

13

Next to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, what is the next most common cause?

Chaga's disease

14

*What are the 4 controlling mechanisms of heart failure?
(review question)

1. preload
2. afterload
3. inotropism
4. HR

15

What is myocarditis?

infection of the heart muscle usually from viral causes. This can cause a dilated cardiomyopathy, as well as a pericarditis (which can cause a restrictive cardiomyopathy).

16

What are the symptoms of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)?

syncope, angina, dyspnea, sudden death.

17

What is the initial therapy for HOCM?

negative inotropic agents (verapamil, or beta blockers)

18

**What is the leading cause of heart failure?

ischemic cardiomyopathy (CAD).

19

Can muscular dystrophy cause dilated cardiomyopathy?

YES

20

What should make you suspicious of hemochromatosis?

people who have a good sun tan during the winter who haven't traveled due to hemosiderin deposition in the skin.

21

Where is sarcoidosis seen more often?

in black females. Forms noncaseating granulomas on the heart muscle.

22

What is a big cause of toxicity leading to cardiomyopathy?

anthracyclines (chemo agent).

23

What can lyme disease do?

3rd degree heart block due to effects on the AV node.

24

**How do you make the diagnoses of 3rd degree heart block with neck veins?

cannon A waves