Flashcards in Pathology of Cardiomyopathies Deck (15):
What is cardiomyopathy?
a group of myocardial diseases that result in cardiac dysfunction.
What is dilated cardiomyopathy?
dilation of all 4 chambers of the heart.
What is the most common form of cardiomyopathy?
In what does dilated cardiomyopathy result?
systolic dysfunction (ventricles cannot pump), leading to biventricular CHF, with complications of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation and arrhythmia (because you are stretching the conduction systems).
What is the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy?
idiopathic (we don't know).
What are other causes of dilated cardiomyopathy?
- genetic mutations (autosomal dominant mostly, but if x-linked then dystrophin problem).
- myocarditis (coxsackie A or B)= lymphocytic infiltrate
- alcohol (leading to thiamine deficiency= beriberi disease).
- drugs (doxorubicin and cocaine)
*viral myocarditis is the most common cause in young.
What is the treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy?
What is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
massive hypertrophy of the left ventricle and septum.
**What causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
genetic mutations in sarcomere proteins of beta myosin heave chain (autosomal dominant).
**What occurs with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
1. decreased CO (LVH leads to diastolic dysfunction= ventricle cannot fill due to lost compliance).
2. most common GENETIC cause of SUDDEN DEATH due to ventricular arrhythmias (especially in young athletes).
3. syncope with exercise (from functional aortic stenosis).
**What is the classic finding in a biopsy of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
myofiber hypertrophy with disarray.
What is restrictive cardiomyopathy?
decreased compliance of the ventricular endomyocardium that restricts filling during diastole.
What are the causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
- sarcoidosis (non-caseating granulomas)
- endocardial fibroelastosis (children).
- Loeffler syndrome= endomyocardial fibrosis with an EOSINOPHILIC infiltrate.
How do patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy present?
as CHF with low-voltage EKG and diminished QRS amplitude.