Clinical Epidemiology 2 - Frequency Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Epidemiology 2 - Frequency Deck (20)
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1

Fraction of a group of people possessing a clinical condition or outcome at a given point in time

Prevalence

2

Point vs Period Prevalence

Point - single point in time
Period - defined period

3

Fraction of a group of people initially free from outcome of interest that develops condition over given point in time (new cases)

Incidence

4

Formula for incidence

New cases in period of time / Susceptible people without disease at beginning of period

5

Formula for prevalence

Existing cases at defined time / Population (All people, cases and non-cases)

6

Type of study used to measure incidence

Cohort Study

7

Type of study used to measure prevalence

Cross-Sectional Study

8

Relationship between duration of disease, prevalence, and incidence

Prevalence/Incidence = Duration (steady state)
Prevalence = Incidence x Duration

In words: Higher duration = more likely to be caught by prevalence study

9

Proportion of people having a disease who die from it

Case fatality rate

10

Proportion of people having a disease who survive it

Survival Rate

11

Formula for infant mortality rate

Number of deaths in year of children <1 yr
over
Number of live births in the same year

12

Formula for perinatal mortality rate

Number of stillbirths and deaths in first week of life per 1000 livebirths

13

Formula Maternal Mortality Rate

Number of maternal deaths related to childbirth in a given year
over
Number of live births in the same population during same year

14

TRUE OR FALSE: Infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate are approximations of incidence?

TRUE

15

Approach to studying incidence in a dynamic population

Incidence Density (Person Years)
Take into account time each person is part of the population/at risk

16

In measuring rates for cervical cancer - what is the appropriate denominator?

Women who are susceptible (with cervix, no hysterectomy done)

17

A concentration of new cases in time

Epidemic

18

A widespread disease globally

Pandemic

19

A disease limited to certain places

Endemic

20

TRUE OR FALSE: Prevalence studies provide good evidence for cause and effect

FALSE! -
only one point in time is measured, cant establish that conclusion yet