# Clinical Epidemiology 2 - Frequency Flashcards

1
Q

Fraction of a group of people possessing a clinical condition or outcome at a given point in time

A

Prevalence

2
Q

Point vs Period Prevalence

A

Point - single point in time

Period - defined period

3
Q

Fraction of a group of people initially free from outcome of interest that develops condition over given point in time (new cases)

A

Incidence

4
Q

Formula for incidence

A

New cases in period of time / Susceptible people without disease at beginning of period

5
Q

Formula for prevalence

A

Existing cases at defined time / Population (All people, cases and non-cases)

6
Q

Type of study used to measure incidence

A

Cohort Study

7
Q

Type of study used to measure prevalence

A

Cross-Sectional Study

8
Q

Relationship between duration of disease, prevalence, and incidence

A
```Prevalence/Incidence = Duration (steady state)
Prevalence = Incidence x Duration```

In words: Higher duration = more likely to be caught by prevalence study

9
Q

Proportion of people having a disease who die from it

A

Case fatality rate

10
Q

Proportion of people having a disease who survive it

A

Survival Rate

11
Q

Formula for infant mortality rate

A

Number of deaths in year of children <1 yr
over
Number of live births in the same year

12
Q

Formula for perinatal mortality rate

A

Number of stillbirths and deaths in first week of life per 1000 livebirths

13
Q

Formula Maternal Mortality Rate

A

Number of maternal deaths related to childbirth in a given year
over
Number of live births in the same population during same year

14
Q

TRUE OR FALSE: Infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate are approximations of incidence?

A

TRUE

15
Q

Approach to studying incidence in a dynamic population

A
```Incidence Density (Person Years)
Take into account time each person is part of the population/at risk```
16
Q

In measuring rates for cervical cancer - what is the appropriate denominator?

A

Women who are susceptible (with cervix, no hysterectomy done)

17
Q

A concentration of new cases in time

A

Epidemic

18
Q

A

Pandemic

19
Q

A disease limited to certain places

A

Endemic

20
Q

TRUE OR FALSE: Prevalence studies provide good evidence for cause and effect

A

FALSE! -

only one point in time is measured, cant establish that conclusion yet