# Clinical Epidemiology 5: Risk: Exposure to Disease Flashcards

1
Q

Clinical studies in which researcher gathers data by simply observing events as they happen without playing an active part

A

Observational studies

2
Q

A group of people who have something in common when they first asembled and who are then observed for a period of time

A

Cohort

3
Q

Three criteria needed to be fulfilled to observe a cohort properly

A
1. All do not have desired outcome or disease at the time they are assembled
2. Observed over meaningful amount of time (sufficient time)
3. All should be observed over the full period. Dropouts should be accounted for.
4
Q

Basic design of cohort study

A

Divide cohort into exposed and unexposed, then see who develops disease or desired outcome at the end

5
Q

Incidence study is another name for what type of study design?

A

Cohort study

6
Q

Risk measurement measuring probability of an event in a population under study

A

Absolute Risk

7
Q

Formula for absolute risk

A

New cases in giveb period of time / number of people.

Formula similar to incidence

8
Q

Additional risk of disease following exposure above that experienced by unexposed population

A

Attributable Risk (or Risk Difference)

9
Q

Formula for attributable risk

A

Incidence in Exposed - Incidence in Unexposed

10
Q

Number of times more likely exposed persons get a disease compared to unexposed persons

A

Relative Risk

11
Q

Formula for relative risk

A

Incidence in exposed / incidence in unexposed

12
Q

It measures excess incidence of a disease in a community attributable to a risk factor

A

Population attributable risk

13
Q

Formula for population attributable risk

A

Attributable risk x prevalence of exposure to risk factor in population

14
Q

Fraction of disease occurrence in a population associated with a risk factor

A

Population attributable fraction

15
Q

Formula for population attributable fraction

A

Population attributable risk / Total Incidence

16
Q

Variables part of the system being studied but are not the exposure or primary disease of interest

A

Extraneous Variables / Covariates

17
Q

Comparison of two naturally occuring groups, exposed and unexposed without implying that the exposure was responsible for differences in outcome

A

Crude Measures of Effect

18
Q

A variable associated with both the exposure and disease but is not part of the causal chain from exposure to disease

A

Confounding Variable / intermediate outcome

19
Q

Any process aimed at removing the effects of extraneous variables while examining independent effects of individual variables.

A

Controlling