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Flashcards in Clinical Findings Deck (42):
1

what arrhythmia has an irregular irregular pulse?

atrial fibrillation

2

what heart valve defect has a slow-rising pulse?

aortic stenosis

3

what hear valve defect has a collapsing pulse?

aortic regurgitaiton

4

what 3 major conditions give a bounding pulse?

acute CO2 retention, hepatic failure, sepsi

5

what condition give a radial-femoral delay?

co-arction of the aorta

6

what 2 conditions give a jerky pulse?

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
mitral regurgitation

7

what 2 conditions give pulsus bisferiens?
(ie a bifid pulse)

mixed aortic disease
hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

8

what 2 conditions give pulsus paradoxus?
(ie large decrease in pulse volume during inspiration)

cardiac tamponade
constrictive pericarditis

9

what condition gives a raised, fixed JVP?

superior vena cava, obstruction

10

what condition gives a JVP rising on inspiration?

cardiac tamponade
constrictive pericarditis

11

what gives large 'v' waves in the JVP?

tricuspid regurgitation

12

what gives absent 'a' waves in the JVP?

atrial fibrillation

13

what 3 major conditions give cannon 'a' waves in the JVP?

complete heart block
AV dissociation
ventricular arrhythmias (eg VT)

14

what heart valve abnormality gives you a wide pulse pressure?

aortic regurgiation

15

what heart valve abnormality gives you a narrow pulse pressure?

aortic stenosis

16

what murmur is a rumbling mid-diastolic murmur heard best at the apex?

mitral stenosis

17

what murmur is a pansystolic murmur at apex, radiating to carotids?

mitral regurgitation

18

what murumur is a ejection systolic murmur heard best in the aortic area?

aortic stenosis

19

what murmur is an early diastolic murmur heard best at the left lower sternal edge?
(best heard in expiration leaning froward)

aortic regurgitation

20

what murmur is a harsh pansystolic murmur head best at the left sternal edge?

ventricular septal defect

21

what murmur gives a tapping apex beat?

mitral stenosis

22

what murmurs give a displace, volume overloaded, apex beat?

mitral regurgitation, aortic regurgitation

23

what murmur gives a heaving undisplaced apex beat?

aortic stenosis

24

what heart valve abnormality is associated with malar flush?

mitral stenosis

25

what heart valve abnormality is associated with pulsatile hepatomegaly?

tricuspid regurgitation

26

what heart valve abnormality is associated with carotid pulsation? (corrigans signs)

aortic regurgitation

27

what heart valve abnormality is associated with head nodding? (de Mussets sign)

aortic regurgitation

28

what heart valve abnormality is associated with capillary pulsations in nail bed? (quincke's sign)

aortic regurgitation

29

what condition is associated with roth spots, janeway lesions and osler nodes?

infective endocarditis

30

what congenital heart defect gives a continuous 'machinery' murmur best heard below left clavicle?

PDA

31

when do patients with tranposition of the great vessels become cyanosed?

first day of life

32

when do patients with tetralogy of fallot become cyanosed?

first month of life

33

on an ECG, what does a 'saw-tooth' pattern with normal complexes suggest?

atrial flutter

34

on an ECG what does absent 'p' waves suggest?

atrial fibrillation
(or sino-atrial block)

35

on an ECG what does a bifid 'p' wave suggest?

left atrial hypertrophy
(eg due to mitral stenosis)

36

on an ECG what does a peaked 'p' wave suggest?

right atrial hypertrophy (eg due to pulmonary hypertension, tricuspid stenosis)

37

on an ECG what does ST depression show?

myocardial ischaemia

38

on an ECG what does ST elevation show?

acute MI
or left ventricular aneurysm

39

on an ECG, what does 'saddle'-shaped ST elevation show?

acute constrictive pericarditis

40

on an ECG what does s1q3t3 pattern suggest?
deep S waves lead 1
Q waves in lead 3
inverted T waves in lead 3

pulmonary embolism
(but rare finding)

41

on an ECG, what does tall tented 't' waves and wide QRS complex suggest?

hyperkalaemia

42

on an ECG, what does flattened 't' waves and prominent 'U' waves suggest?

hypokalaemia