Flashcards in Valvular Heart Disease Deck (55)
when do patient with valvular heart disease characteristically get symptoms?
how do you describe a murmur?
systole or diastole?
what type of murmur?
where is it loudest?
where does it radiate to?
what grade of murmur?
is it influenced by respiration?
what 4 murmurs are systolic?
what 4 murmurs are diastolic?
what is a pansystolic murmur?
equal throughout systole
what are pansystolic murmurs the result of?
regurgitation of blood flow
what are ejection systolic murmurs?
during systole sound gets louder than softer
what are ejection systolic murmurs the result of?
what type of murmurs radiate?
what is an early diastolic murmur?
what is a mid diastolic murmur?
which murmurs are always pathological?
where do aortic systolic murmurs radiate to?
where do pulmonary systolic murmurs radiate to?
where do tricuspid systolic murmurs radiate to?
where do mitral systolic murmurs radiate to?
under left axilla
describe murmur grading?
1. very quiet
2/3. loud without thrill
4/5. loud with thrill
6. loud- audible without stethoscope
which sided murmurs will vary with inspiration?
right sided murmurs will be louder on inspiration than expiration
(eg tricuspid and pulmonary murmurs will vary with inspiration)
what are the 3 characteristics of an innocent murmur?
-everything else is normal
-occurs in early systole
-usually located in pulmonary area but no where else
what is valve stenosis?
valves dont open properly
what is valve regurgitation?
valves don't stay closed properly
what is mixed valve disease?
valves neither open properly or close properly
what are the 3 main causes of aortic stenosis?
congenital bicuspid aortic valve
what are the symptoms of aortic stenosis?
dizziness/syncope on exertion
what are the signs of aortic stenosis?
-low volume pulse
-forceful apex- LV heave
-ejection systolic murmur which is maximal in aortic area and radiates to the carotids
what are the 3 treatment options for aortic stenosis?
-surgery: valve replacement
-balloon aortic valvotomy
-transcatheter aortic valve implantation
what are the 2 types prosthetic heart valves?
what are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical heart valves compared to bioprosthetic?
mechanical have long term durability but need anticoagulants
biporsthetic dont need anticoagulants but aren;t as durable
what are 4 problems can cause mitral regurgitation?
problems with mitral valve leaflets
ischamia or infarction of papillary muscle