Valvular Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Valvular Heart Disease Deck (55)
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1

when do patient with valvular heart disease characteristically get symptoms?

on exertion

2

how do you describe a murmur?

systole or diastole?
what type of murmur?
where is it loudest?
where does it radiate to?
what grade of murmur?
is it influenced by respiration?

3

what 4 murmurs are systolic?

mitral regurgitaiton
tricuspic regurgitation
aortic stenosis
pulmonary stenosis

4

what 4 murmurs are diastolic?

mitral stenosis
tricuspid stenosis
aortic regurgitaion
pulmonary regurgitation

5

what is a pansystolic murmur?

equal throughout systole

6

what are pansystolic murmurs the result of?

regurgitation of blood flow
mitral/tricuspid regurgitation

7

what are ejection systolic murmurs?

during systole sound gets louder than softer

8

what are ejection systolic murmurs the result of?

stenosis
(aortic/pulmonary stenosis)

9

what type of murmurs radiate?

systolic murmurs

10

what is an early diastolic murmur?

aortic/pulmonary regurgitation

11

what is a mid diastolic murmur?

mitral/tricuspid stenosis

12

which murmurs are always pathological?

diastolic murmurs

13

where do aortic systolic murmurs radiate to?
(aortic stenosis)

neck

14

where do pulmonary systolic murmurs radiate to?
(pulmonary stenosis)

left shoulder

15

where do tricuspid systolic murmurs radiate to?
(tricuspid regurgitation)

dont radiate

16

where do mitral systolic murmurs radiate to?
(mitral regurgitation)

under left axilla

17

describe murmur grading?

1. very quiet
2/3. loud without thrill
4/5. loud with thrill
6. loud- audible without stethoscope

18

which sided murmurs will vary with inspiration?

right sided murmurs will be louder on inspiration than expiration

(eg tricuspid and pulmonary murmurs will vary with inspiration)

19

what are the 3 characteristics of an innocent murmur?

-everything else is normal
-occurs in early systole
-usually located in pulmonary area but no where else

20

what is valve stenosis?

valves dont open properly

21

what is valve regurgitation?

valves don't stay closed properly

22

what is mixed valve disease?

valves neither open properly or close properly

23

what are the 3 main causes of aortic stenosis?

congenital bicuspid aortic valve
age-related calcification
rheumatic

24

what are the symptoms of aortic stenosis?

breathlessness
chest pain
dizziness/syncope on exertion

25

what are the signs of aortic stenosis?

-low volume pulse
-forceful apex- LV heave
-ejection systolic murmur which is maximal in aortic area and radiates to the carotids

26

what are the 3 treatment options for aortic stenosis?

-surgery: valve replacement
-balloon aortic valvotomy
-transcatheter aortic valve implantation

27

what are the 2 types prosthetic heart valves?

mechanical
bioprosthetic

28

what are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical heart valves compared to bioprosthetic?

mechanical have long term durability but need anticoagulants
biporsthetic dont need anticoagulants but aren;t as durable

29

what are 4 problems can cause mitral regurgitation?

problems with mitral valve leaflets
chordal rupture
ischamia or infarction of papillary muscle
annular dilation

30

why does annular dilation cause regurgitation?

because valves no longer meet in the middle so are leaky