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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (102):
1

where is the heart situated?

middle mediastinum in the pericardial sac

2

the fibrous pericardium is lined internally by what?

parietal serous pericardium

3

the pericardial cavity is between what two serous layer?

parietal pericardium (on the internal side of the fibrous pericardium) and the epicardium.

4

the epicardium secretes what?

pericardial fluid lubricant

5

what is it called when the pericardial cavity fills with blood?

haemopericardium

6

what is it called when there is pressure around the heart preventing cardiac contraction? (ie during a haemopericardium)

cardiac tamponade

7

what is the name of the process where you drain fluid from the pericardial cavity?

pericardiocentesis

8

what is the space within the pericardial cavity, that lies posterior to the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk?

transverse pericardial sinus

9

usually, where is the apex of the heart?

5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line

10

what is it called when the apex beat is shifted to the left?

cardiomegaly

11

the right coronary artery is located where?

in the coronary groove
(indicates tricuspid valve)

12

the LAD branch of the left coronary artery is located where?

the anterior interventricular groove (indicates septal between ventricles)

13

what is located in the posterior atrioventricular groove?

coronary sinus

14

what is the coronary sinus?

a short venous conduit which receives deoxygenated blood from the cardiac veins

15

what is located in the posterior interventricular groove?

posterior interventricular artery of the right coronary artery

16

what takes up the majority of the base of the heart?

left atrium

17

what lies in the left atrioventricular groove?

left main stem coronary artery?

18

where do the coronary arteries arise from?

right and left aortic sinuses

19

Coronary arteries are embedded within what type of tissue?

adipose tissue, just deep to the epicardium

20

what is the name of the structure which divies the heart into a right and a left side?

septum

21

what name is given to the condition where there is a hole in the interatrial septum?

atrial septal defect

22

what name is given to the condition where there is a hole in the interventricular septum?

ventricular septal defect

23

what is the life-threatening problem that can occur due to a septal defect?

mixing of arterial and venous blood

24

how does the heart muscle pump ensure unidirectional flow?

the 4 cardiac valves- one valve at exit from the cardiac chamber

25

what carries the fibres of the right bundle branch to the papillary muscle of the anterior cusp of the tricuspid?

moderator band

26

incompetent valves are leaky and cause?

regurgitation

27

valves that are too tight are known as?

stenotic

28

what is the thoracic inlet bounded by?

rib 1, T1 and the jugular notch

29

what plane is between the sternal angle and T4/5?

transverse thoracic plane

30

where is the thymus?

anterior mediastinum

31

what is the function of the thymus?

a lymphoid gland that produces T lymphocytes in children.

32

after puberty, what does the thymus become replaced with?

adipose tissue

33

what 7 important structures lie within the posterior mediastinum?

1. oesophagus
2. azygos vein
3. sympathetic trunks
4. thoracic duct
5. vagus nerves
6. thoracic aorta
7. trachea and 2 main bronchi

34

where do the intercostal veins drain?

posteriorly into the azygos vein

35

the azygos vein arches anteriorly and drains into what structure?

superior vena cava

36

what are the three branches of the aortic arch?

brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian?

37

name 5 branches from the thoracic aortas anterior surface.

1. bronchial arteries
2. oesophageal arteries
3. mediastinal arteries
4. pericardial arteries
5. phrenic arteries

38

the right lymphatic duct drains lymph to where?

the right venous angle

39

the thoracic duct drains lymph to where?

the left venous angle

40

what is the swollen area of the start of the thoracic duct called?

cisterna chyli

41

what is the opening in the diaphragm to allow the aorta to pass through called?

aortic hiatus

42

the right phrenic nerve passes the diaphragm with what blood vessel in order to supply the diaphragm from the inferior aspect?

Inferior vena cava

43

what is the name of the remnant of the ductus arteriosus?

ligamentum arteriosum

44

what nerve passes under the ligamentum arteriosum and back to the larynx?

recurrent laryngeal branch of the left vagus nerve

45

name the 3 nerves that pass through the mediastinum?
(lateral to medial)

phrenic
vagus
recurrent laryngeal

46

what are the 8 central veins?

internal jugular veins
subclavian veins
brachiocephalic veins
superior vena cava
right atrium
inferior vena cava
iliac veins
femoral veins

47

what are the name of large veins close enough to the heart that they approx reflex the pressure in the right atrium?

central veins

48

the right recurrent laryngeal nerve hooks under which artery before returning to the larynx?

right subclavian

49

the left recurrent laryngeal nerve hooks under which artery before returning to the larynx?

arch of the aorta

50

what 3 types of nerves does the vagus nerve contain?

somatic sensory, somatic motor, parasympathetic

51

What body parts do the somatic sensory nerve fibres of the vagus supply?

the palate
laryngopharynx
larynx

52

what body part do the somatic motor nerve fibres of the vagus supply?

pharynx
larynx

53

what body parts do the parasympathetic nerve fibres of the vagus supply?

thoracic and abdominal organs

54

Once the vagus nerves have given off their recurrent laryngeal branch what nerve fibres do the contain?

only parasympathetic fibres

55

the phrenic nerves supply somotatic motor to?

the diaphragm

56

the phrenic nerves supply somatic sensory to?

the mediastinal parietal pleura, the fibrous pericardium, the diaphragmatic parietal pleura, the diaphragmatic parietal peritoneum

57

pain from the diaphragm can often be referred to what body part?

the shoulder

58

what do the recurrent laryngeal nerve muscles supply?

the muscles of the larynx

59

what does the cephalic vein drain?

upper limb
(superficial vein)

60

peripheral pulse:
brachial artery

medial to the biceps brachii tendon, in the cubital fossa

61

peripheral pulse:
radial artery

lateral to the tendon of flexor carpi radialis

62

peripheral pulse: bifurcation of the common carotid

anterior to the sternocleiodomastoid, at the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage

63

peripheral pulse: femoral artery

inferior to midpoint of the inguinal ligament

64

peripheral pulse: popliteal artery

in the popliteal fossa

65

peripheral pulse: posterior tibial artery

between the posterior border of the medial malleolus and the achilles tendon

66

peripheral pulse: dorsalis pedis artery

medial to tendon of extensor hallicus longus on the dorsum of the foot

67

Sympathetic nervous control of the heart do what 2 things?

1. increases heart rate
2. increases contractility

68

Parasympathetic nervous control of the heart does what 1 thing?

1. decreases heart rare

69

what plexus do the autonomic nerves reach the heart via?

the cardiac plexus

70

Pain fibres travel to spinal cord alongisde what type of autonomic nerves?

sympathetic nerves

71

Visceral reflex afferents from baroreceptors travely mainly in what crainial nerve?

Vagus nerve (CN X)

72

What type of fibre connects the CNS to the ganglion?

Presynaptic fibre

73

What is the synapse between axon of presynaptic neurone and the cell body of postsynaptic neurone called?

ganglion

74

What type of fibre connects the ganglion to the organ?

Postsynaptic fibre

75

Presynaptic sympathetic fibres from the brain travel inferiorly within the spinal cord and exit the spinal cord at what vertebrae?

T1-L2/3

76

Once the sympathetic presynaptic fibres leave the spinal cord what FIVE options can they take?

1. go into the ganglion of that level and synapse in the sympathetic chain
2. travel superiorly in the sympathetic chain to synapse at another ganglion
3. travel inferiorly in the sympathetic chain to synapse at another ganglion
4. pass straight through the sympathetic chain ganglion without synapsing and synapses at a prevertebral ganglia
5. pass straight to the adrenal medulla without synapsing at the sympathetic chain or the prevertebral ganglia

77

What is the collective name of the sympathetic nerve fibres which don't synapse at the sympathetic chain but at the prevertebral ganglia?

abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves

78

what do the sympathetic fibres which pass straight to the adrenal medulla without synapsing in the sympathetic chain of the prevertebral ganglia stimulate?

the release of adrenaline

79

what type of nerve fibres are involved in the cardiac plexus?

sympathetic fibres
parasympathetic fibres
visceral afferents

80

cardiopulmonary splanchnic presynaptic nerves synapse where?
(sympathetic nerve fibres)

cervical and upper thoracic sympathietic chains

81

What cranial nerves have parasympathetic functions?

III, VII, IX, X

82

what type of autonomic function do pelvic spanchnic nerves have?

parasympathetic

83

Parasympathetic nerve fibres synapse onto ganglia where?

within the walls of the organs

84

what does vagal tone within the heart do?

slows the resting heart rate

85

postsynaptic cardiac sympathetic efferent and cardiac visceral afferent travel in what type of nerves?

cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves

86

Where are visceral afferent chemoreceptor nerve endings found in the heart?

root of the aorta and IV septum

87

Where are 6 places visceral afferent nerve endings that detect stretch and chemicals in the heart located?

1. inner aortic arch
2. pulmonary trunk
3. around the SA node
4. outflow tracts from both ventricles
5.papillary muscles
6. vena cava

88

what is pain in an anatomical way?

stimulation of sensory receptor, afferent action potential travels to the brain

89

where do somatosensory APs bring body wall sensations into consciousness?

postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe

90

posterior rootlets are for what type of somatic function?

somatic sensory

91

anterior rootlets are for what type of somatic function?

somatic motor

92

Where do somatomotor APs that cause contractions of skeletal muscle originate?

precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe

93

Where does the reactivation of herpes zoster (shingles) occur?

posterior root ganglion

94

In herpes zoster (shingles), what precedes the classic blisters?

pain in the dermatome of the reactivation of dormant virus

95

Do the phrenic nerves descend anteriorly or posteriorly to the lung root?

anteriorly

96

what is the name of feeling pain at a site remote to the actual area of injury?

referred pain

97

where does the left coronary artery arise from?

the left aortic sinus

98

where does the right coronary artery arise from?

the right aortic sinus

99

what type of coronary blood supply dominancy is the most common?

right dominant pattern (ie right coronary artery supplies more areas of the heart than the left coronary artery)

100

What are the 4 most common sites within the coronary arteries for narrowing due to atherosclerosis?

(in descending order of likelihood)
1. anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery
2. right coronary artery
3. circumflex branch of the left coronary artery
4. left main stem coronary artery.

101

In the majority of patients from which coronary artery does the SA node obtain its blood supply?

right coronary artery near its origin

102

In the majority of patients from which coronary artery does the AV node obtain its blood supply?

right coronary artery, near origin of posterior interventricular artery.