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Flashcards in Arrhythmias Deck (106)
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1

where is the origin of a supraventricular arrhythmias?

above the ventricle
ie SA, atria, AV, HIS

2

where is the origin of a ventricular arrhythmia?

ventricle

3

what should be the only point of electrical contact between the atria and the ventricles?

AV node

4

what are ectopic beats?

beats or rhythms that originate in places other than the SA node

5

what are 3 common supraventricular tachycardias?
(supraventricular arrhythmias)

AF
Atrial flutter
ectopic atrial tachycardia

6

what are 2 common supraventricular bradycardia arrhythmias?

sinus bradycardia
sinus pauses

7

what are 3 common AV node arrhythmias?

AVN re-entry
Accessory pathway
AV block

8

what are 4 common ventricular arrhythmias?

premature ventricular complex (PVC)
ventricular tachycardia
ventricular fibrillation
asystole

9

what causes premature ventricular complexes?

ectopic beats originating from the ventricles

10

how can an accessory pathway arrhythmia be acquired?

MI

11

how can sleep apnoea cause arrhythmias?

because patients get hypoxic at night- metabolic cause of arrhythmia

12

what type of arrhythmia occurs in Wolf Parkinson White syndrome (WPW)?

re-entry:
accessory pathway tachycardia

13

what does hypothermia do to the pacemaker potential slope?

decreases slope- negative chronotropic effect

14

what does hyperthermia do to the pacemaker potential slope?

increases slope- positive chronotropic effect

15

what does hypoxia do to the pacemaker potential slope?

increases slope- positive chronotropic effect

16

what does hypercapnia do to the pacemaker potential slope?

increases slope- positive chronotropic effect

17

why can ischaemia or necrosis increase ectopics?

because local areas of ischaemia or necrosis increases automaticity of neighbouring cells

18

what does hypokalaemia do to the pacemaker potential slope, automaticity and length of repolarisation?

increase pacemaker potential slope
increases automaticity (therefore increases ectopics)
prolongs repolarisation

19

what does hyperkalaemia do to the pacemaker potential slope and AV conduction?

decreases pacemaker potential slope
slows AV node conduction

20

what is an afterdepolarisation?

a small depolarisation after the repolarisation phase of an AP, if this is of sufficient magnistude this will reach threshhold and lead to a full depolarisation- triggered activity

21

what are the 5 main symptoms of an arrhythmia?

palpitations
SOB
dizziness
syncope
sudden cardiac death

22

what are the 7 investigations used for a suspected arrhythmias?

12 lead ECG
CXR
echocardiogram
stress ECG
24 hour ECG Holter monitoring
event recorder
Electrophysiological study

23

what type of heart disease do echocardiograms show?

structural heart disease

24

what is a stress ECG?

heart is provoked in a controlled way, ischamia or arrhythmias may only be present when the cardiac demand is higher

25

what is an event recorder?

a monitor which only turns the recorder on if it detects a change- if the patient feels symptoms it can manually be switched on

26

what is an electrophysiological stufy?

an invasive investigation which deliberately induces a clinical arrhythmia to study mechanism and map the pathway
opportunity to treat the arrhythmias by radiofrequency ablation

27

what is pre-excitation?

accessory pathway from atria to ventricles for AP to flow

28

what is the function of a 24 hour Holter ECG?

assesses for paroxysmal arrhythmias
(heart rhythm is rarely captured though)

29

what vein is the catheter for an electrophysiological study usually put through?

femoral vein

30

if an atrial ectopic beat is asymptomatic how do you treat?

no treatment