Cardiovascular Disease Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > Cardiovascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disease Deck (267)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is atherosclerosis?

a progressive build up of plaque within the arteries

2

what is athersclerotic plaque formed from?

fatty substances
choleserol
cellular waste
calcium
fibrin

3

what are the 2 main consequences of an artherosclerotic plaque?
(what do these both cause?)

1. bleeding into the plaque
2. rupture causing clot formation
(both can result in artery occlusion)

4

what is an atherothrombosis?

formation of an acute thrombosis superimposed on atherosclerosis

5

what are the stages from normal artery to atherothrombosis?

1. normal artery
2. fatty streak
3. fibrous plaque
4. atherosclerotic plaque
5. plaque rupture + thrombosis

6

why does the rupture of a atherosclerotic plaque cause clot formation?

platelets adhere to damaged area to try and heal the broken area
(especially since components such as collagen and vWF have been exposed)

7

why does a fatty streak form on the endothelium of a normal artery?

1. endothelial damage
2. protective response results in production of cellular adhesion molecules
3. monocytes and T-cells attach to the sticky surface of endothelial cells
4. migration into the subendothelial space
5. macrophages take up oxidised LDL-C
6. instead of clearing OXLDL, macrophages become lipid-rich foam cells
7. fatty streak forms

8

what factors can cause damage to the endothlium?

1. haemodynamic forces
2. vasoactive substances
3. cytokines from blood cells
4. cigarette smoke
5. atherogenic diet
6. elevated glucose levels
7. oxidied LDL-C

9

what type of haemodynamic force can cause endothelial damage?

hypertension
(due to sheer stress)

10

what 4 things does OXLDL cause?

1. promotes damage of endothelial cells
2. promotes inflammatory response
3. causes vasodilatory impairment
4. induces prothrombic state (by affecting platelets and coagulation factors)

11

how does OXLDL cause vasodilatory impairment?

by modifying endothelial response to angiotensin II

12

why does a fibrous lesion form over the fatty streak?

a protective response to the endothelial damage

13

what are 4 major risk factors for cardiovascular disease

dyslipiaemia
hypertension
smoking
diabetes

14

why do CVD risk factors (such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and smoking) cause endothelial cells to decrease production of some compounds and increase production of others? (endothelial dysfunction)

by causing oxidative stress in the vessel wall

15

what is intermittent claudication a symptom of?

peripheral arterial disease

16

why are many patients with PAD not diagnosed?

most are asymptomatic
(9/10)

17

what are the 4 minor risk factors for cardiovascular disease?

physical inactivity
alcohol
stress
gender/genes

18

what type of cholesterol do statins reduce?

total cholesterol
LDL cholesterol

19

what is the statin with the greatest efficacy?

rosuvastatin

20

which is the statin with the least likelihood of side effects? (myopathy)

atorvastatin

21

what are xanthelasma?

xanthomas of the eyelids

22

why do tendon xanthomas form?

infiltration of tendon by lipid: hypercholesterolaemia

23

where are the most common places for tendon xanthomas?

extensor tendons of fingers, patella, elbows
achilles tendon

24

why do tuberous xanthomas form?
(eg elbows)

lipid deposits

25

what are the 3 causes of tuberous xanthomas?

familial hypertriglyceridemias
acquired hypertriglyceridemias
biliary cirrhosis

26

what do eruptive xanthomas suggest?

abrupt increase in serum triglyceride levels

27

where are eruptive xanthomas more likely to me?

buttocks
posterior thighs
body folds

28

for patients with diabetes, what is their target blood pressure?

below 130/80

29

what does smoking do to your blood pressure?

increases blood pressure

30

what does smoking do to your HDL?

decreases HDL