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Flashcards in Clinical Psych Glossary Deck (53)
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Acculturation (Berry)

1)integration 2)assimilation 3)separation 4)marginalization



Illness is do to blockage of qi (life energy). Efficacy may be related to release of chemicals near the needle site as body fights perceived pain.


Adler's Individual Therapy

Stresses unity of the individual; belief that behavior is purposeful and goal related. Inferiority feelings / strive to be superior. Maladaptive = mistaken style of life, poor social interest. Teleological approach motivated by future goals not past events.


Alloplastic Vs Autoplastic Interventions

Refers to the focus of intervention with regards to environment. Alloplastic = change environment to change individual; Autoplastic = change environment to change individual.


Black Racial ID Development Model
Cross (Nigrecence)

1)Pre-encounter: race and race ID have low salience. 2) Encounter: greater awareness; interested in developing a black ID 3)Immersion/emersion: race and ID have high salience and moves from intense black involvement to strong anti-White attitudes. 4) Internalization: race has high salience, person becomes Afrocentric / multiculturalist


Communication/ Integration Family Therapy
Symmetrical vs Complementary Communication

focuses on impact of communication on family and individual function. Symmetrical communication: members are equals but may escalate into competitive game; Complementary: members are unequal but cover each other's deficits.


Cultural Competence
Sue & Sue 2003

3 Competencies: 1) awareness of own belief's, assumptions, values. 2) Knowledge about the differences in worldviews, etc 3) Skills that enable Tx to provide appropriate treatment.


Cultural Encapsulation

Culturally encapsulated counselors interpret everyone's reality through their own cultural assumptions and stereotypes; disregard cultural differences


Cultural vs Functional Paranoia

describes non-disclosure by African Americans in therapy being due to 2 types of paranoia: 1) cultural (healthy) which is in response to racism in he community; 2) functional (pathology) if the reasons aren't based in racism.



Positive Feedback Loop: Amplifies deviation or change resulting in challenge to system; Negative Feedback Loop: status quo.


Diagnostic Overshadowing

Attribute all mental health Sxs to a more serious Dx that may be unconnected (originally prevalent with mental retardation).


Double-Bind Communication

Though of as etiological factor for schizophrenia; involves conflicting negative injunctions > "do that and you'll be in trouble" "Don't do that and you'll be in trouble" Not always the same medium of communication (i.e. verbal / nonverbal)


Efficacy Vs Effectiveness Research

in other words: does the treatment have an effect on the subject? vs is the cost/time/etc worth it for the outcome?


Emic vs Etic Orientation

Emic is inclusive of cultural awareness, Etic is cultural-general, not so good approach


Extended Family Systems Therapy
Differentiation, Emotional Triangle, Genogram

Bowen's approach; system includes larger picture than the nuclear family. Differentiation is separation of emotional feelings and intellect, which helps people avoid becoming fused in relationships. Triangulation; see grad school!


Existential Therapy

Emphasis on personal choice and responsibility for developing a meaningful life. Maladaptive behavior results in inability to cope with the ultimate concerns of existence.



Douschcanoe Brit reviewed cases from early 1900's and found that therapy is no better than spontaneous remission.
Findings indicate untreated patients are better off.


Feminist Therapy

The personal is political. Focus on empowerment, social change and acknowledges and minimizes power differential of Tx vs Cx. Different than non-sexist therapy which focuses on personal causes of behavior and personal changes.


Fruedian Psychoanalysis
Defense Mechanisms, Analysis

When the Ego is unable to ward of danger (anxiety) through rational, realistic means, it may resort to a defense mechanism: repression, reaction formation, etc.)They operate on an unconscious level and work to distort or deny reality. Use of analysis; free association, dreams, resistances, confrontation, clarification, ...


General Systems Theory

A system is maintained by the mutual interactions of its components and are best understood in context. Homeostsis: system will tend to do what it is doing to stay in balance. Systems are open to change.


Gestalt Therapy

Awareness; full understanding of ones thoughts, feelings and actions in the here and now. abandonment of self-image due to a boundary disturbance(introjection). Transference is counter-productive.


Group Therapy

stages: 1) orientation; participation, search for meaning, and dependency. 2) Conflict, dominance & rebellion 3) development and cohesiveness. >>> Cohesiveness is most important; Tx can pre-screen to lower attrition rates.


Health Belief Model

behaviors are influenced by: 1) person's readiness to take action (which is related to perceptions of possible illness and consequences). 2) Person's evaluation of the benefits and costs of a particular response. 3) the internal and external cues that trigger the reponse


High vs Low- Context Communication

culturally diverse groups tend to rely on various forms of communication whereas anglo therapists tend to stress verbal. Can lead to misunderstandings in cultural work.


Homosexual (gay and lesbian) ID Development Model

Troiden's 4 stages: 1) sensitization / feeling different; 2) self-recognition / identity confusion; 3) identity assumption; 4)commitment/identity commitment


Dose Dependent Effect; Phase Model
Howard and Collegues

75% of patients show measurable improvements at 26 sessions; at 52 sessions the number only 85%; suggests that there are 3 phases in therapy: remoralization, remediation & rehabilitation.



experiencing 'alteration of memory, perceptions and mood in response to suggestions. Does not seem to enhance the accuracy repressed memories, and may create psuedomemories


Interpersonal Therapy
Primary Problems

IPT is brief 'manual-based' therapy orig designed for depression but since has been applied to a number of other conditions. interpersonal role disputes / role transitions and interpersonal deficits.


Jung's Analytical Psychotherapy

Behavior determined from both conscious and unconscious factors; collective unconscious > repository of latent memory traces from previous generations; Archetypes > primordial images that cause similar reactions in different people.


Mental Health Consultation
Chaplan (interference type of transference)

1) client centered case consultation 2) Consultee centered 3) Program centered 4) consultee-centered administative