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Flashcards in Physio-Psychopharm Deck (61)
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Amygdala & Kluver-Bucy Syndrome

the amygdala is a substructure of the limbic system and is involved in the control of emotional activities, including the mediation of defensive-aggressive behaviors and the attachment of emotions to memories. Bilateral lesions in the amygdala and temporal lobes of primates produces Kluver-Bucy Syndrome, which is characterized by reduced fear and aggression, increased docility and compulsive oral exploratory behaviors, altered dietary habits, hypersexuality and "psychic blindness"; an inability to recognize the significance or meaning of events or objects.


Anticholinergic Effects

caused by several drugs including the antipsychotics and tricyclic antidepressants; dry mouth, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, constipation, memory impairment & confusion.



Aphasia = impairments in production and/or comprehension of language.


Broca's Aphasia

Broca's = difficulty in producing written or spoken language with little difficulty understanding it. Often includes anomia and impaired repetition.


Wernike's Aphasia

inability to comprehend written or spoken language along with the production of rapid, seemingly effortless speech that is lacking in in content. May also include anomia, paraphasia & impaired repetition.


Conduction Aphasia

produced by damage to the arcuate fascisulus. Does not significantly affect language comprehension but does result in anomia, paraphasia & impaired repetition.


Atypical Antipsychotics

Clozapine and other atypical (newer) AP Drugs affect receptors for several neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin & glutamate. They are effective for both the positive and negative Sxs of Schz and are less likely to produce tardive diskenesia than the traditional AP drugs. However, they can produce agranulocytosis and other blood dyscrasias as well as neuroleptic malignant syndrome.


Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Branches

the ANS is a div of the peripheral nervous sys and is involved in the control of visceral functions (blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, digestion and sweating). The Sympathetic branch: Fight or flight; activation leads to increased heart rate, pupil dilation, increased blood sugar and inhibition of the digestive system. Parasympathetic: conservation of energy and relaxation leads to slowing heart rate, lower blood pressure increased activity of the digestive Sys.


Basal Ganglia

are subcortical structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and substantia nigra) that are involved in planning, organizing and coordinating voluntary movements. BG Pathology has been linked to Huntington's, Parkinson's, Tourette's OCD & ADHD.



Propranolol and other B-Bs block or diminish the cardiovascular excitatory response to the hormones epinephrine & norepinephrine. They are used to treat cardiovascular D/Os glaucoma and Migraines. Also help reduce Sxs of anxiety. Common S/fx include bradycardia, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, decreases sexual ability and trouble sleeping.


Brain Lateralization
"Split Brain" patients

although there is shared responsibility of each side, they tend to specialize. The specialization of the two hemispheres is referred to as brain lateralization and was initially studied in split-brain patients, who's corpus callosums had been severed to control severe epilepsy.


Left Hemisphere Dominant

Dominates in Verbal activities, analytical, logical thought; and positive emotion states.


Right Hemisphere Non-Dominant

dominates in visual-spatial activities such as facial recognition, spatial interpretation and in memory for shapes; also dominates negative emotions.


Cerebellum and Ataxia

The cerebellum is a large structure on the dorsal aspect of the hind brain. It is involved in the extrapyramidal control over motor activities (coordination, balance, posture). Damage can result in ataxia, which is characterized by slurred speech, severe tremors and a loss of balance.


Cerebral Ventricles

are the four cavities of the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Blockage and the resulting build-up of fluid can cause hydrocephalus.


Cerebrovascular Accident (CVS)

aka CV Stroke; refers to brin damage that occurs when a blood clot or other obstruction or hemorrhage disrupts blood flow to the brain. Common Sxs include: contralateral hemiplegia, hemianesthesia involving the face, arm and leg; and contralateral visual field loss.


Contralateral Representation

for most sensory and motor functions, the cortex exhibits contralateral representation, which means that the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice-versa.


Corpus Callosum

The left and right hemispheres are connected by several bundles of fibers, the largest of which is the corpus callosum. If it is severed, the two hemispheres operate essentially as separate, independent brains.


Depth Perception / Retinal Disparity

depends on a combination of binocular and monocular cues. Retinal disparity is a binocular cue and refers to the fact that our 2 eyes see objects in the world from 2 different views; and the closer and object, the greater the disparity of the two images.


Dopamine Hypothesis

Schizophrenia is due to overactivity at the dopamine receptors either as a result of oversensitivity of the receptors or excess dopamine levels.


Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

1) Agonists- produce FX similar to those produced by a neurotransmitter 2) Inverse Agonists- Px opposite effect Pxd by neurotransmitter 3) Partial Agonists- similar but less FX than NTs or agonist 4) Antagonists- Px no activity in the cell but reduce or block the FXs of a neurotransmitter or agonist.


Emotion Areas of the Brain

1) Amygdala - plays role in the perception and expression of anger, fear, sadness, happiness; attaches emotions to memories. 2) Hypothalamus- involved in the translation of emotions into physical responses. 3) Cerebral Cortex.


Frontal Lobe & Prefrontal Cortex

frontal lobes occupy the major portion of the cortex and includes the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, premotor cortex, Broca's area and prefrontal cortex. Damage to the prefrontal cortex produces personality changes and deficits in higher-level cognitive abilities.


Gate-Control Theory of Pain

there are mechanisms in the spinal cord that mediate the perception of pain.


General Adaptation Syndrome

The human response to stress is mediated by adrenal-pituitary secretions (e.g. cortisol) and involves 3 stages: 1) Reaction 2) Resistance 3) Exhaustion; Prolonged stress can result in illness or death.



is a limbic system structure that is important for spatial and explicit memory and the consolidation of declarative memories.


Huntington's Disease

is an inherited degenerative disease that is transmitted by a single autosomal dominant gene and involves emotional, cognitive and motor Sxs. For many, emotional and cognitive Sxs appear first and include; depression, apathy, anxiety, antisocial tendencies and forgetfulness. Early motor Sxs include fidgeting and clumsiness which are followed by facial grimaces and "piano-playing" movements of the fingers. Huntington's is believed to be due to a loss of GABA-secreting neurons and glutamate excitotoxicity in the basal ganglia, especially in the caudate nucleus, putamen & globus pallidus.



2 types: Primary (essential) is Dx when high blood pressure is not due to a known physio cause. Secondary: Dx when it is known. Primary accounts for about 85%-90% of all cases of high blood pressure; untreated it can lead to cardiovascular disease and it is the main cause of heart failure, kidney failure and stroke. Prevalence related to age, race and gender: older adults increased; Blacks higher than whites; higher for older black women.


Hyper & Hypothyroidism

Hyper: caused by hyper secretion thyroxine by the thyroid gland and is characterized by a speeded-ip metabolism, elevated body temp, accelerated heart rate, increased appetite with weight loss, nervousness and insomnia. Hypo: caused by Hypo... involves slowed metabolism, etc see above reverse plus impaired concentration, memory & depression.



Low blood glucose: caused by excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreas and is characterized by hunger, dizziness, headaches, blurred vision, palpitations, anxiety, depression and confusion.