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Flashcards in Clostridium Deck (18):
1

Describe the appearance of clostridium under the microscope

Gram positive
Bacilli

2

What does the clostridium species form?

Endospores

3

Where can the clostridium species be found? (X2)

GI tract
Environment

4

What disease does C. Tetani cause?

Tetanus

5

State the habitat of C. Tetani (x2)

Soil
Human

6

Appearance of C. Tetani under the microscope

Gram positive, but stains are gram variable
Spores

7

To which conditions can spores tolerate?

Spores can survive autoclaving at 121deg for 15mins

8

Incubation period of C. Tetani

4 days to weeks

9

Symptoms of infection by C. Tetani (x4)

- irritability, drooling
- headache, fever, sweating
- exaggerated reflexes, back spasms, lock jaw
- general muscle rigidity and spasm - difficulty swallowing; rigidity of the back

10

What should be given to someone suspected of infection by C. Tetani, who has never been immunised to it?

Administer Anti-toxin: tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG) and 3 tetanus toxoid injections

11

What should be given to a patient suspected of C. Tetani infection, who has already been immunised before?

Administer anti toxin promptly - tetanus toxoid

12

Treatment for C. Tetani

- prompt intervention - administer anti toxin
- clean wound and undertake debridement
- penicillin

13

Control of C. Tetani

- immunisation with tetanus toxoid

14

Name 4 characteristics of C. Botulinum

- gram-positive
- obligate anaerobe
- subterminal (slipper) endospores
- produces neurotoxin

15

Sources of C. Botulinum (x3)

Foodborne
Wound
Infant

16

Symptoms of C. Botulinum (x7)

- appears 18-36h after exposure
- double / blurred vision
- drooping eyelids
- slurred speech
- dry mouth - difficulty swallowing
- muscle weakness
- respiratory failure / paralysis

17

Symptoms of c. Botulinum in infants (x4)

- lethargy
- constipation
- weak cry
- poor muscle tone

18

Name 4 species of clostridium

C. Difficile
C. Botulinum
C. Tetani
C. Perfringes