Flashcards in CNS- Abused Drugs Deck (28)
name the 5 classes of abused drugs
How does tolerance develop in a behavioural, functional and metabolic views?
behavioural: compensate for drug effect
functional: changes in drug action ^ or ˘ in receptor #
metabolic: ^ drug metabolism
how does dependence develop in a psychological and physiological view?
psychological: drug seeking behaviour
what is the higher user (gender/age) of drug abusers?
males under 25
what are the 3 therapeutic steps to drug abuse?
1. treat acute overdose
2. manage withdrawal symptoms
3. long-term rehabilitation
what does a sedative do?
they enhance GABA response, and cause an alternating sedative and stimulant.
what are 3 examples of stimulants?
what drug can be used to help with sedative withdrawal?
clonidine- helps autonomic symptoms
what drug can be used to treat ethanol withdrawal?
describe the metabolic tolerance to ethanol?
MEOS convert ethanol to acetaldehyde at high [ethanol], -the enzymes system induced in chronic alcholoism, therefore the more use, causes an ˆ ethanol metabolism
name two examples of opioids and what the users seek for?
morphine and heroin.
users seeking initial rush followed by euphoria, tranquility and sleepiness.
what is the mechanism of action of opioids?
opioid receptor (mu)- linked to G-protein
presynaptic: ˘Ca2+ -> ˘ neurotransmitters
postsynaptic: ˆ K+ efflux -> inhibition of postsynaptic neurons
describe the effects of heroin
effects last 3-5 hours,
many formulations that vary in potency so theres an ˆ risk of overdose.
what are the routes of administration of heroin?
what are the symptoms of heron toxicity?
respiratory depression, coma, death,
what is the opioid receptor antagonist for heroin
what are two main drugs used for the detoxificaiton of heroin?
methadone- longer-acting opiord receptor angonist
clonidine- autonomic symptom withdrawal
name some examples of stimulants and what do they do for their users?
amphetamine and analogs, cocaine
**HIGHLY ADDICITIVE and ˆ alertness and euphoria
what are the main routes of administration for these stimulants?
inhalation, IV, oral
what is the mechanism of action of stimulants?
ˆ release (amphetamines) or ˇ reuptake (cocaine) of NE, dopamine, and serotonin
what are the adverse effects of stimulants?
psychosis, and delusions, excess sympathomimetic activity
what are the results of a cocaine overdose, since an amphetamine overdose is less fetal.
intracranial hemorrhage, stroke, seizure, arrhythmias, heart attack, coma, death
name two examples of hallucinogens, and describe what they are (agonist/ antagonist).
LSD: agonist at 5-HT receptors (~5-HT2a)
PCP: NMDA receptor antagonist
what are the desired effects of hallucinogens?
visual illusions and perceptual distortion
what are the adverse effects of hallucinogens
panic reactions, psychosis, flash-backs
LSD_ causes strong uterine contractions
PCP- overdose can be fatal
what is the mechanism of action for cananabinoids
cannabinoid receptor (CB1- CNS, and CB2- PNS)- both linked to g-protein which inhibits either GABA, or glutamate release
what are the effects of cannabinoids on the system?
initiak: euphoria, laugter, altered sense of time
secondary: relaxation, introspection, sleepiness
also -> impaired cognition, perception, reaction time, learning and memory & can -> paranoia, anxiety, hallucinations