CNS- Abused Drugs Flashcards Preview

BIOM*3090. UOG > CNS- Abused Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS- Abused Drugs Deck (28):
1

name the 5 classes of abused drugs

1. sedatives
2. opiods
3. stimulants
4. hallucinogens
5. cannabinoids

2

How does tolerance develop in a behavioural, functional and metabolic views?

behavioural: compensate for drug effect
functional: changes in drug action ^ or ˘ in receptor #
metabolic: ^ drug metabolism

3

how does dependence develop in a psychological and physiological view?

psychological: drug seeking behaviour
physiological: withdrawal

4

what is the higher user (gender/age) of drug abusers?

males under 25

5

what are the 3 therapeutic steps to drug abuse?

1. treat acute overdose
2. manage withdrawal symptoms
3. long-term rehabilitation

6

what does a sedative do?

they enhance GABA response, and cause an alternating sedative and stimulant.

7

what are 3 examples of stimulants?

ethanol
barbiturates
benzodiazapines

8

what drug can be used to help with sedative withdrawal?

clonidine- helps autonomic symptoms

9

what drug can be used to treat ethanol withdrawal?

benzodiazepines

10

describe the metabolic tolerance to ethanol?

MEOS convert ethanol to acetaldehyde at high [ethanol], -the enzymes system induced in chronic alcholoism, therefore the more use, causes an ˆ ethanol metabolism

11

name two examples of opioids and what the users seek for?

morphine and heroin.
users seeking initial rush followed by euphoria, tranquility and sleepiness.

12

what is the mechanism of action of opioids?

opioid receptor (mu)- linked to G-protein
presynaptic: ˘Ca2+ -> ˘ neurotransmitters
postsynaptic: ˆ K+ efflux -> inhibition of postsynaptic neurons

13

describe the effects of heroin

effects last 3-5 hours,
many formulations that vary in potency so theres an ˆ risk of overdose.

14

what are the routes of administration of heroin?

inhalation
sub-cutaneous inhection
IV

15

what are the symptoms of heron toxicity?

respiratory depression, coma, death,

16

what is the opioid receptor antagonist for heroin

naloxone

17

what are two main drugs used for the detoxificaiton of heroin?

methadone- longer-acting opiord receptor angonist
clonidine- autonomic symptom withdrawal

18

name some examples of stimulants and what do they do for their users?

amphetamine and analogs, cocaine
**HIGHLY ADDICITIVE and ˆ alertness and euphoria

19

what are the main routes of administration for these stimulants?

inhalation, IV, oral

20

what is the mechanism of action of stimulants?

ˆ release (amphetamines) or ˇ reuptake (cocaine) of NE, dopamine, and serotonin

21

what are the adverse effects of stimulants?

psychosis, and delusions, excess sympathomimetic activity

22

what are the results of a cocaine overdose, since an amphetamine overdose is less fetal.

intracranial hemorrhage, stroke, seizure, arrhythmias, heart attack, coma, death

23

name two examples of hallucinogens, and describe what they are (agonist/ antagonist).

LSD: agonist at 5-HT receptors (~5-HT2a)
PCP: NMDA receptor antagonist

24

what are the desired effects of hallucinogens?

visual illusions and perceptual distortion

25

what are the adverse effects of hallucinogens

panic reactions, psychosis, flash-backs
LSD_ causes strong uterine contractions
PCP- overdose can be fatal

26

what is the mechanism of action for cananabinoids

cannabinoid receptor (CB1- CNS, and CB2- PNS)- both linked to g-protein which inhibits either GABA, or glutamate release

27

what are the effects of cannabinoids on the system?

initiak: euphoria, laugter, altered sense of time
secondary: relaxation, introspection, sleepiness

also -> impaired cognition, perception, reaction time, learning and memory & can -> paranoia, anxiety, hallucinations

28

what are some therapeutic uses of cannabinoids?

cancer: ˇ pain & vomiting, ˆweight
Glaucoma: ˇ intraocular pressure
AIDS: appetite stimulation.