Flashcards in CNS-introduction Deck (25)
what components does the cortex control?
what components does the limbic system control?
what component does the diencephalon control?
what component does the cerebellum control?
sensory/ motor co-ordination
what component does the midbrain/brain stem control?
reflex pathways / information relay/ awareness/arousal
what component does the spinal cord control?
sensory / motor/ autonomic
what are interneurons?
communicate within same brain region
what are projection neurons?
axons project from one brain region to another
What is neurodegenerative disease / CNS disorders?
an imbalance in neurotransmission
drugs attempt to restore the balance.
what are the 4 classifications of transmitters?
1. amino acids (excitatory- glutamate, inhibitory- GABA)
3. monoamines (dopamine, Norepinephrione, serotonin)
how dose glutamate effect the CNS?
it relays neurons, and acts on NMDA and non-NMDA receptors.
what is an NMDA receptor?
its an ion channel ( ^ [Ca2+], [Na+], [K+])
how dos GABA effect the CNS?
associated with the behaviour, acts on postsynaptic GABA receptors.
what is GABAa
ion channel linked to (^ [Cl-])
and is the target for sedative hypnotics
what is GABAb
G-protein linked to ion channel ( ^[K+])
how is acetylcholine associated with the CNS?
interneurons: associated with motor control
Projection: associated with learning, memory and congition
acts on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.
how is norepinerphrine associated with the CNS?
throughout CNS and important in awareness/arousal/ autonomic control.
alpha 1 & beta 1 : excitatory
alpha 2 & beta 2: inhibitory
how is dopamine associated with CNS?
midbrain: motor control
there are 5 subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) linked to G-protein second messenger system.
how is serotonin associated with CNS?
play role in behaviour and control of sleep, temperature, appetite, and neuroendocrine function.
14 subtypes, all linked to G- protein secondary messengers
catergories 5-HT1 to 5-HT7, subtypes indicated by letter
what does 5-HT1a and 5-HT2a do?
5-HT1a: inhibitory - decreases cAMP
5-HT2a: excitatory, ^DAG, IP3
how does transport occur for the BBB?
transport occurs primarily via passive diffusion. therefore the diffusion dependent on drug lipid solubility and pKA
what are the symptoms for AD? (alzheimers disease)
progressive and irreversible memory loss and cognitive impairment
how is AD diagnosed?
if neurofirillary tangles and amyloid plaques are present in hippocampus and cortex
what are tangles and plaques in the brain?
tangles: intracelluylar accumulation of twister fibers of phosphorylated tau protein
plaques= extracellular deposits of beta- amyloid protein.