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Flashcards in CNS exam 1 Diagrams Deck (74):
1

nervous system significance



plays a dominant role in coordination, association & integration of body responses to internal & external demand

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CNS components



brain & spinal cord

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PNS components

-12 cranial nerve PAIRS
-31 spinal nerve PAIRS
-ganglia

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groups of neuron cell bodies clustered together in the PNS

ganglia

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groups of neuron cell bodies clustered together in the CNS

nuclei

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outgoing nerve fiber

efferent

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incoming nerve fiber

afferent

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NS part that innervates skeletal, voluntary muscles
-both efferent & afferent NF, w/ ONE cell body
-involves CNS & PNS
-cholinergic

somatic component of NS

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-NS part that innervates glandular epithelium, smooth, & cardiac (visceral/involuntary) muscles
-both CNS & PNS
-efferent (motor) NF receive emphasis

autonomic component of NS

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sympathetic & parasympathetic
-divisions from efferent NFs only

autonomic subdivisions

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-located in both CNS & PNS, craniosacral
-cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X
-sacral nerves 2-4
-uses TWO efferent neurons to reach the target

ANS: parasympathetic division

12

preganglionic neuron is LONG
-postganglionic neuron is SHORT (usually in target)
-cholinergic system

efferent parasympathetic neurons

13



-subdivision of ANS that slows heart rate, speeds peristalsis, constricts the pupil & respiratory tree
-"rest and digest"

parasympathetic effects

14

-subdivision of ANS that speeds heart rate, decreases peristalsis, dilates the pupil & respiratory tree
-"fight or flight"

sympathetic effects

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-located in both CNS & PNS, but PNS nerves w/ sympathetic efferent fibers are thoracolumbar
-spinal nerves T1-L2
-uses 2 efferent neurons to reach the target

ANS: sympathetic division

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-preganglioninc is SHORT -->cholinergic
-postganglionic is LONG -->adrenergic (NE)

efferent sympathetic neurons

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-1:17
-more widespread/general response, very fast

pre:post sympathetic ratio

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-1:2
-more limited response, but more precise

pre:post parasympathetic ratio

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-structure in second week of embryo development that is split between ectoderm & endoderm
-ectoderm (outer layer) will give rise to the NS

bilaminar disc

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-forebrain, primary brain vesicle
-forms the secondary vesicles telencephalon & diencephalon

prosencephalon

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-midbrain, primary brain vesicle
-forms the secondary vesicle with the same name

mesencephalon

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-hindbrain, primary brain vesicle
-forms the secondary vesicles metencephalon & myelencephalon

rhombencephalon

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secondary brain vesicle that forms the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia & lateral ventricles

telencephalon

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secondary brain vesicle that forms the thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland & 3rd ventricle

diencephalon

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secondary brain vesicle that forms the corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles, & cerebral aqueduct

mesensephalon (secondary)

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secondary brain vesicle out of the pontine flexure that forms the cerebellum, pons, & 4th ventricle

metencephalon

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secondary brain vesicle out of the pontine flexure that forms the MO & 4th ventricle, and is continuous w/ the spinal cord

myelencephalon

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area of multipotent cells in a developing fetus that will give rise to the CNS

neural tube

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-structure in developing embryo w/ multipotent cells that will give rise to the PNS

neural crest

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-flexure at the caudal end of an embryo, posterior to the rhombencephalon
-disappears later in development

cervical flexure

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-flexure at the cranial end of an embryo, anterior to the rhombencephalon & posterior to the mesencephalon

cephalic flexure

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"pre-neurons"
-formed from neuroepithelial cells, these immature cells give rise to neurons

neuroblasts

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10% of body weight & uses 60% O2

brain at birth

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2-2.5% of body weight & uses 20% O2

brain in adult

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-non-conductive, ~ undifferentiated "nerve glue" cells, can help guide neurons in development
-10:1 glio:neuron ratio
-formed from neuroepithelial cells
-immature cells that further differentiate into astrocytes & oligodendrocytes

glioblasts

36

-cell for structural support ~ CT
-stellate shape, most numerous cell in adult CNS
-help the BBB, store glucose, glial-scarring (stroke)

astrocytes

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astrocyte found in gray matter: unmyelinated

protoplasmic astrocytes

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astrocyte found in white matter: myelinated

fibrous astrocytes

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oligodendrocyte in the white matter
-forms myelin sheaths around most CNS axons (like the Schwann Cells in the PNS)

interfasicular oligodendrocyte

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-oligodendrocytes in the gray matter
-possibly play a nutrient role

perineuronal satellites

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cells lining the central canal/ventricles of CNS that are a "leaky" barrier bt the CSF & CNS parenchyma
-some secrete CSF and form choroid plexus in each ventricle

ependymal cells

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involved in communication bt the 3rd ventricle & the hypothalamus

tanycytes

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solid tumor derived from glioblasts, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, in general

glioma

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tumor that begins in the brain as opposed to being metastasized to it

primary brain tumor

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-most common primary brain tumor
-in the astrocytes (most common glial cell)

astrocytoma

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-mostly lethal primary brain tumor
-increased risk w/ age, 6 mo life expectancy

glioblastoma

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-choroid plexus CSF builds up, can't get out
-increased pressure->hydrocephalus

ependymoma

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-tiny mesodermally derived glial cells with a phagocytic/scar forming function
-become activated w/ dmg/infected neural tissue

microglia

49



-only disease in which the CNS cells are productively infected
-if they become infected, they spread it to others
-microglia involved bc of immune response

HIV

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-classification of neurons based on appearance
-unipolar, bipolar, multipolar

anatomical neuron classification

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-classification of neurons based on function/position
-sensory, motor, internuncial

physiological neuron classification

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-neuron with seemingly one process, but really has both a dendrite & axon closely associated together
-usually involved w/ sensory

(pseudo)unipolar

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neuron with 2 distinct processes, found in the special sense organs
-equilibrium, sight, smell, taste, etc

bipolar

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-neuron with multiple dendrites and one axon
-golgi type I: larger/long axons
-golgi type II: smaller/short axons, more numerous
-usually associated w/ motor

multipolar

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-afferent neuron that gets info from the PNS to the CNS
-can be uni-, bi-, multi-

sensory neuron

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-efferent neuron that takes info from the CNS to the PNS, usually to somatic muscle
-are mostly multipolar

motor neuron

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neurons that are entirely within the CNS structures and have special types depending on where they reach

internuncial neurons

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internuncial neuron running bt the same thing on opposite sides of the CNS (R - L)

commissural

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internuncial neuron that begins in one structure and terminates in a different in the CNS

projection

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type of projection neuron that stays on the same side of the CNS

ipsilateral

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type of projection neuron that crosses to the opposite side

contralateral

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-type of projection neuron in the SC that begins and ends at the same cord level
-also contralateral

INTRAsegmental

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-type of projection neuron in the SC that begins at one cord level and ends at another.
-also ipsilateral

INTERsegmental

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-cell body, 4-130 micron in diameter
-takes several shapes: stellate, round, fusiform, oval, pyramidal

perikaryon

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-axoaxonic: least common
-axodendritic: most common
-axosomatic: soma=cell body

synapse types

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-most abundant in soma/telodendria
-used for energy/atp prod, for AP

mitochondria

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-clumps of RER + free ribosomes and iron deposits
-found in the dendrites & soma, NOT in the axon or hillock

Nissl bodies

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-apparent dissolving of Nissl bodies following a neuron injury
-are actually just dispersing, and will reconstitute if the cell survives

chromatolysis

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fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus under neuronal injury

retispersion

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largest tubules, maintain cell shape

microtubules

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smallest tubules, associated w/ axolemma
-run longitudinally & circumferentially

microfilaments

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tubules intermediate in size

neurofilaments

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movement of raw materials within the cell (intraneuronal)

axoplasmic transport

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-intracellular movement of items like protein for the neurofibrils and mitochondria
-0.1-3.0 mm/day in the anterograde direction
-slow, so little energy required
-speed is directly related to axon length

slow transport