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Flashcards in Exam 1 Unit 2 Deck (84):
1

Neuroepithelial cells gives rise to:

Neuroblast
Ependymal cells
Glioblasts

2

Give rise to astrocytes & the oligodendrocytes

Glioblast

3

Maintain some mobility potential

Astrocytes

4

Most numerous cell of the adult central nervous system

Astrocytes

5

2 types of astrocytes

Protoplasmic - grey matter
Fibrous - white matter

6

______ found b/t blood vessel capillaries & neuron cell bodies

Astrocytes

7

Store what little excess glucose can be held by CNS tissue

Astrocytes

8

Play a dominate role in forming "scar- like" tissue following CNS injury

Astrocytes

9

Neurotransmitters such as _________, _______, _________ may be influenced directly by astrocytes at synaptic gaps.

Glutamate, dopamine, serotonin

10

Types of oliodendrocytes:

Perineuronal satellites - grey matter
Interfascicular- white matter(form myelin sheaths around most axons in CNS)

11

Serve as a"leaky" barrier b/t the CSF and the CNS parenchyma

Ependymal cells

12

Most ependymal cells are classified as

simple cuboidal

13

Tanycytes in 3rd ventricle

Transporting some compounds from CSF to hypophyseal- portal system

14

Most common, primary brain tumor

Astrocytoma

15

Most lethal, primary brain tumor

Glioblastoma

16

Restrict the flow of CSF- result in increase in intracranial pressure

Ependymona

17

medodermally derived. Arise from fetal macrophages & invade from the bloodstream during embryonic & fetal development

Microglia

18

Become active when neural tissue is injured

Microglia

19

Microglia have _______ function -responsible for clearing dead & damaged tissue & may even wall off damaged areas along with the astrocytes

Phagocytic Function

20

Also mediate immune responses w/in CNS

Microglia

21

Have a neuroepithelial origins (along neural tube)

Neuroblast

22

Neuroeithelial cells in the neural crest give rise to _____ of the PNS

Neurons

23

Show little mitotic activity but do undergo growth/masturation & adaptation

Neuroblast

24

Neuron Classification

Anatomical vs. Physiological

25

Anatomical classification:

Based on appearance & generally designated as unipolar, bipolar, and mulitpolat

26

Physiological Classification:

based on function & position & generally designated as sensory, motor, & internuncial

27

- AKA Pseudounipolar: w/ central & peripheral extensions.
- Found in Dorsal Root Ganglion

Unipolar

28

Smell, vision, hearing, taste, & equilibrium

Bipolar

29

ONE & ONLY ONE axon. but can have multiple denrites

Multipolar

30

Multipolar has 2 types:

Golgi Type 1; Long axon
Golgi Type 2: Short axon

31

Carry info. toward CNS

Sensory

32

Carry info. away from CNS

Motor

33

An internuncial neuron that runs b/t equivalent structures on OPPOSITE sides of the CNS

Commissural

34

An internuncial neuron that begins in one structure & terminates in a different structure

Projection

35

Projection neurons has 2 types:

Ipsilateral- stays on the SAME side
Contralateral- Crosses to the OPPOSTIE side

36

An internuncial neuron in the spinal cord that begins & ends at the same cord level

Intra segmental

37

Internuncial neuron in the spinal cord that begins at one cord level & terminates at another cord level

Inter segmental

38

Bilaminar disc is the ectoderm and the endoderm, the Ectoderm gives rise to what system

Nervous system

39

Neural crest cells give rise to what system

PNS

40

Rhombencepalon is made up of the:

Myelencephalon & the Metencephalon

41

Prosencephalon is made up of the:

Diencephalon and the telencephalon

42

Myelencephalon gives rise to the:

M.O

43

Metencephalon gives rise to the:

Cerebellum and the pons

44

Secrete cerebrospinal fluid and form the "choroid plexus" in each ventricle

Ependymal cells

45

What structures meet to form a synapse in the CNS?

Axoaxonic
Axondendritic
Axonsomatic

46

Axonaxonic:

Synapse w/ axon - least common

47

Axondendritic:

Axon synapses with another dendrite- Most common

48

Axonsomatic:

Synapse b/t axon & cell body

49

Where are mitochondria most abundant?

- Cell body
- Telodendritic endings

50

Mitochondria produce what?

ATP

51

What are nissl bodies?

Clumps of RER

52

Nissl bodies are also known as?

Tigroid bodies

53

When present nissl bodies are found in the:

Dendrites and cell body

54

New names for neurofibrils?

Microtubules
Microfilaments
Neurofilaments

55

Tubules help maintain cell shape and have a diameter b/t 20-30 nm (largest)

Microtubules

56

They run longitudinally and circinferentially and are often associated with axolemma (3-5 nm smallest)

Microfilaments

57

Moderate in diameter filaments (9-10nm middle in size)

Neurofilaments

58

What is axoplasmic (cell) transport?

Movement of "raw materials" within the cell (NOT nerve impulse)

59

- Movement of protein building blocks for the neurofibrils and mitochondria.
- Occurs in an anterograde direction (away from the cell body)

Slow transport (DOES NOT REQUIRE ATP)

60

-Movement of synaptic vesicles, lysosomes, and certain enzymes.
- Moves in either anterograde or retrograde

Fast transport (REQUIRES ATP)

61

The anatomical & functional unit of the nervous system (single nerve cell)

Neuron

62

Extension of the neuron AWAY from its cell body (can be an axon or a dendrite)

Neuron process

63

Neuron process conducting an impulse TOWARD the cell body, Can be several

Dendrite

64

Single neuron process carrying the impulse AWAY from the cell body toward a synaptic or neuromuscular junction

Axon

65

Raised area of the cell body from which an axon arises, In the CNS most action potential are initiated here

Hillock

66

Dominantly long process, if present, of a neuron. Usually an axon but can be a dendrite

Nerve fiber

67

Myelin is composed of ________/________ and neurokeratin (protein) accumulations. Myelin is made by surrounding cells

Phospholipid/ cholesterol

68

Schwann cells wraps around the:

Neuron

69

Schwann cells become:

Neuralemma

70

There is no myelin over the _______, ________ or ______. when present myelin is only over the long process. (fiber)

Telodendria, Perkaryon or hillock

71

Schwann cells cover nerve fibers in the

PNS

72

Where one Schwann covering meets another a tiny exposed area is created and is called:

Node of Ranvier

73

Where the Schwann cell exists, you have an:

Internode

74

Additional coverings in the PNS

Endoneurium
Perineurium
Epineurium

75

Highly vascular, fibrous and cellular matrix is around each neurilemma. It continues even out along the finest telodendritic branches.

Endoneurium

76

- This coat wraps around groups of fibers (fasciculi).
- The most elastic of the mesodermal covers
- it is continuous with the pia and the arachnoid maters as it approaches the CNS structures

Peineurium

77

-Outer coat of a nerve
- Virtually inelastic and adds protection, strength and support to the fasciculi w/in.
Continuous with the dura mater as it approaches the CNS structures

Epineurium

78

Myelin will be found covering what structures in the CNS?

Axons > 1micron in diameter

79

Is the myelin associated with a Schwann cell?

No, interfassicular oliodendrocytes

80

Guillain - Barre syndrome

Affects the PNS / affects Schwann cells

81

Multiple Scerosis

Affects the CNS

82

Axons grouped together in the CNS

White matter

83

Midline white matter connectors inside the CNS

Commissures

84

A stalk or pillar-like formation of the CNS white matter

Peduncles