Exam 1 part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 part 2 Deck (49):
1

-double layers of sickle-shaped meningeal dura extending into a few brain fissures
-"compartmentalize" vault and brain
-support & protect from sloshing

dural falces

2

frontal falx located in the great longitudinal cerebral fissure bt the two hemispheres
-extends from Crista Galli to internal occipital protuberance

falx cerebri

3

-lower falx that dips bt the cerebellar hemispheres in the posterior cerebellar notch
-fixed at the internal occipital crest

falx cerebelli

4



-tent like side (R/L) falces over the cerebellum and under the occipital lobes of the cerebrum
-located in the transverse/horizonal cerebral fissue

tentorium cerebelli

5



-opening left bt the R & L tentorial wings, brain stem comes up through this opening
-brain structures can be supratentorial v infratentorial; for surgery

tentorial hiatus

6

dura that forms a "roof" over the pituitary fossa
-perforated in the middle by the infundibular stalk (to the pituitary)

diaphragma sellae

7

diaphragma sellae

dural cephalgia

8



-transparent, non-vascular membrane
-only dips into fissures or sulci when dura does

arachnoid mater

9

thin membrane formed by arachnoid + pia maters

leptomeninges

10



apparent dural tumor that actually starts in the arachnoid membrane but quickly attaches to the dura

meningioma

11



a potential space between the arachnoid and dura mater; should not have anything in it

subdural space

12



a real space between the arachnoid and pia maters that is filled with CSF

subarachnoid space

13



"holding tank" where subarachnoid space is particularly deep

subarachnoid cisternae

14



-largest extracranial cistern
-fills lumbar cul-de-sac
-location of a spinal tap

lumbar cistern

15

-largest cranial cistern, aka cisterna magna
-4th ventricle opens into it via the median foramen

cerebellomedullary cistern

16



-cistern w/ important BVs, veins & arteries
-pineal gland, and midbrain collicular bodies here

cistern of the great cerebral vein

17



-cistern anterior to pons
-lateral foramina enter laterally from the 4th ventrical

pontine cistern

18

much of the cerebral arterial circle of willis vascularization is in this cistern

interpeduncular cistern

19

tufted prolongation of arachnoid mater that herniate into the dura mater
-allow used CSF to be removed from the subarachnoid space & carried out cranial vault via DVS's

arachnoid villi

20



-innermost meninx, "tender mother"
-dips into ALL fissues, sulci, folia of brain AND cord
-along with arachnoid mater is part of leptomeninx

pia mater

21



-cells & collagen bundles continuous w/ arachnoid trabeculae, is continuous w/ BVs to/from CNS

outer pia

22

structure in the vertebral canal that is formed by pia that penetrates the arachnoid & fuse w/ the dura

denticulate ligaments

23



-strand of fibrous tissue formed primarily by the outer pia, proceeds down from the apex of the conus medullaris

filum terminale internum

24



-layer of pia w/ fine reticular & elastic fiber that is adherent to the CNS tissue w/i
-melanophores can be abundant here->melanoma

deeper pia

25

-"deeper" pial coating that surrounds larger BVs, dips in/out of CNS tissue
-perivascular space is bt this and BV

pial cuff

26



accumulation of blood outside of the BV

hematoma

27



-a collection of blood in the potential space bt the skull & periosteal dura
-due to head trauma
-pressure must be surgically relieved or death

epidural hematoma

28



-collection of blood in the pt'l space bt meningeal dura & arachnoid
-due to a shear injury, bridging vein rupture
-chronic in elderly, acute (trauma) in younger
-usually not as dangerous, smaller veins, doesn't escalate quickly

subdural hematoma

29



-collection of blood in subarachnoid space
-traumatic: due to cerebral contusion
-non-traumatic: spontaneous, "worst headache of my life" !!

subarachnoid hemorrhage

30

blood perfused through the brain each minute

800 ml

31

-leading cause of death in M&F >25yo w/ HBP or arteriosclerosis or both
-most due to arterial blockage

stroke (CVA)

32



most common site for CVA/strokes

middle cerebral artery

33

most common site for strokes under chiropractic care

posterior inferior cerebellar arteries

34



-arteries that supply the majority (2/3) of blood to brain

internal carotid arteries

35



-anteromedial longitudinal artery trunk
-sends ~200 branches into the ventral aspect of the cord

AMLAT

36



posterior longitudinal artery trunks

PLLAT

37

-most common capillary type, lacks holes/fenestrae
-is not leaky, joined tightly w/ thick basement
-still has thin walls for oxygen/glucose to pass thru

continuous capillary

38



-structure that does not allow substances access into CNS structures via the bloodstream
-mostly due to the continuous capillary
-astrocytes assist in function

blood brain barrier

39

lipid soluble molecules, caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, L-dopa

can cross BBB

40

water-soluble molecules, botulinum, dopamine

can't cross BBB

41



-large veins that lack valves, have a simple endothelial lining, and the dura acts as support
-v. low BP

dural venous sinuses

42



- ~do NOT follow back the same course the arteries and arterioles follow into the CNS
-form pial plexuses
-most penetrate the arachnoid mater and meningeal dura to drain into the DVS's

CNS venules/veins

43



-longest DVS, receives used blood from scalp, bones, cerebrum via arachnoid villi
-along the midline (falx cerebri)
-blood flows into R transverse DVS

superior sagittal DVS

44



-DVS along post 2/3 of falx cerebri
-empties blood into straight DVS

inferior sagittal DVS

45



-DVS at jxn of falx cerebri, tent cerebelli, falx cerebelli
-drainage ~into the L transverse DVS











straight DVS

46



-v. small DVS
-flow ~into L transverse DVS

occipital DVS

47

-bilateral structure at approx jxn of straight, occip, sup sag DVS
-drainage away from confluens are via transverse DVS's

confluence of the sinuses

48



-large bilateral DVS running along fixed occipital bone margins of tentorium cerebelli

transverse DVS

49



-bilateral DVS that courses along the mastoid process of the temporal & occipital bone to the jugular foramen
-continues w/ the internal jugular vein

sigmoid DVS