Quiz 5 Cerebellum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 5 Cerebellum Deck (46):
1

Cerebellum integrates very rapidly a host of sensory input info. on the momentary status of:

Muscle contraction
joint tension
Visual & auditory input on the equilibrium

2

Integration allows the cerebellum to aid & influence:

Muscle tone
Posture
Aids in making skilled somatic muscle movements smooth and effective

3

True or False Input fibers come from ALL CNS levels (M.O., pons, midbrain, diencephalon & telencephalon)

True

4

T/F Each cerebellar hemisphere influences the ipsilateral side of the body

True

5

The cerebellum is attached to the Medulla Oblongata via:

Inferior cerebellar peduncle

6

The cerebellum is attached to the Pons via:

Middle cerebellar peduncle

7

The cerebellum is attached to the Midbrain via:

Superior cerebellar peduncle

8

Inferior peduncle:

Afferent fiber dominate (into cerebellum)(Post. spinocerebellar & cuneucerebellar fiers)
Efferent are also present

9

Middle peduncle:

Afferent fibers only
All fibers going in cerebellum coming from pontine nuclei

10

Superior peduncle:

Efferent fibers are dominate
Afferent fibers are present (Ant. spinocerebeller fibers)

11

Which brain tumors are most frequent in male children over female children?

Medulloblastomas
(arise in the superior meduallry velum as well as the posterior part of the cerebellar vermis)

12

External subdivisions of cerebellum:

Median: Vermis
Lateral: rt/lt hemisphere

13

The vermis & the hemispheres are divided into lobes which are named:

Anterior
Posterior
Flocculonodular

14

White matter collectively is known as:

Corpus Medullare

15

White matter is primarily made up of 4 different fibers:

1. Afferent projection fibers (carrying info. going TOWARDS cerebellum)
2. Efferent projection fibers (carrying info. FROM cerebellum
3. Commissural fibers (crossing the midline- connecting each side)
4. Association fibers (carrying info. from one part of cerebellum to the other)

16

Most common NEURON cell types:

1. Purkinje neurons
2. Golgi II neurons
3. Stellate neurons
4. Basket neurons
5. Granular neurons

17

The 5 neuron cells are arranged into 3 laminae:

Outer: Molecular layer
Middle: Purkinje Cell body layer
Inner: Granular layer

18

Two types of outside axons bring input in cerebellar cortical laminae:

Mossy fibers
Climbing fibers

19

Purkinje fibers are the fibers taking messages ____ from the cerebellar cortex

AWAY

20

- Middle cortical lamina
- Composed of 30 million purkinje neuron cell bodies that reach out into the molecular layer

Purkinje cell layer

21

________ purkinje axons are the only efferent (outgoing) fibers from the cerebellar cortex. Most of these terminate in the deep central _______ _____. Some bypass to end in Deiters' portion of the ________ ______.

Myelinated
cerebellar nuclei
Vestibular nucleus

22

Neurotransmitter released by the Purkinje axon is ________ to its target site.

INHIBITORY (GABA)

23

- Innermost cortical lamina
- Layer is named for the abundance of small granular neurons that are present.

Granular Layer (lamina)

24

Granular cell dendrites are ________ by incoming _____ ______. The axon from each granular cell ascends into the molecular layer where it ________ & makes synapse with the spined branches of the purkinje cell dendrites.

Stimulated
Mossy fibers
Bifurcates

25

Neurotransmitter from the granular neuron is:

Glutamate (most abundant neurochemical)
Stimulating the purkinjes

26

Mossy fibers mostly originate from the:

Spinocerebellar & corticopontocerebellar sources

27

Theses fibers are excitatory & synapse with granular cell dendrites:

Mossy Fibers

28

Granular cell axons ascend to synapse with ______ ______ of purkinje cells in the ______ _____. These cells are _______ to the purkinje cells Glutamate)

Spined dendritic branches
Molecular layer
Excitatory

29

Purkinje cell axons _______ (inhibit) the deep central cerebellar nuclei. If the purkinje cell is NOT excited (firing), then the inhibitory results are minimal. _____ is the neurotransmitter.

Influence
GABA

30

- Extremely excitatory- reaching the Purkinje cells smooth dendritic branches directly
- Fibers generally originate in the inferior olivary nucleus (pontine nuclei & reticular cells may also contribute)

Climbing fibers

31

Neurotransmitter involved with Climbing fibers:

Aspartate

32

_______ & _____ fibers bring _______ outside input to the cortex of the cerebellum. This input is integrated trough the granular, ____, basket, _______, & Purkinje cells. Info. leaves the cerebellar cortex through _______ axons. The major target for this ________ outflow is the deep or central cerebellar nuclei.

Climbing & mossy
Excitatory
stellate
Purkinje cells
Purkinje axons
INHIBITORY

33

Names for the central nuclei (arranged most lateral to most medial):

1. Dentate (largest / most lateral)
2. Emboliform
3. Globose
4. Fastigial- Most primitive & medial

34

The emboliform & globose collectively are referred to as the:

Interposed nuclei

35

Purkinje axons from the cortex of the:

Vestibulocerebellum
Spinocerebellum
Cerebrocerebellum

36

Go to the Vestibular nucleus & release GABA

Vestibulocerebellum

37

Go to the Interposed nucleus & fastigial nucleus:

Spinocerebellum

38

Go to the Dentate Nucleus

Cerebrocerebellum

39

Fastigial Nucleus fibers exit the _______ cerebellar peduncles to terminate in the ______ nucleus, reticular formation & nuclei for C.N ___, ___, ___

Inferior cerebellar peduncles
Vestibular nucleus
III, IV, & VI

40

______ nucleus axons generally extend to the ____ Nucleus & reticular formations via the superior cerebellar peduncles

Interposed
Red

41

_____ axons generally reach the ______ with collateral branches being sent to the Red nucleus (Once again via the superior cerebellar peduncles)

Dentate
Thalamus

42

The right side of the cerebellum only deals with the right side of the body (vice versa). Naturally bilateral lesions involve bilateral symptoms

Create ipsilateral clinical signs

43

________ disturbances are quite common. This is particularly true from lesions in the Archicerebellar lobe (Flocculonodular syndrome- Where the patient must constantly fight against falling backwards)

Equilibrium Disturbances

44

_______ ____ changes are common signs. In rare instances electrical stimuli have been applied to the cerebellar cortex to relieve hypertonicity

Muscle tone changes

45

_____ (lack of order or coordination) is not limited to any lobe, but most frequent in lesions of the neocerebellum. One might stagger to the side vs. falling backward in the flocculonodular syndrome. Inability to rapidly supinate/ pronate hands

Ataxia

46

Common symptom in which measured movements are difficult to make. You generally over or undershoot your target

Dysmetria