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Flashcards in CNS histopath Deck (13):
1

Transient ischaemic attack

S/Sx: amaurosis fugax, carotid bruit
Arthrogenic debris from carotid travels to opthalmic (internal carotid).
Ix: carotid USS, cardiovascalar RFs.
Tx: aspirin, dipyridamole, ?carotid endarterectomy.

2

Stroke

Commonly MCA.
Ix: CT/MRI - clot or bleed?
and cardiovascular RFs.
Tx: aspirin, ?dipyrimidole, thrombolytics if

3

Brain haemorrhages -
2 traumatic and 2 not

Traumatic: EDH and SDH;
Non-traumatic: SAH and intraparenchymal.

4

Extradural haemorrhage

Skull fracture, ruptured middle cerebral artery,
Rapid arterial bleed,
Lucid then LoC.

5

Subdural haemorrhage

Elderly or alcoholi,
minor trauma,
slow venous bleed, fluctuating consiousness.
Assoc with brain atrophy.

6

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

85% from ruptured berry aneurysms, most at bifurcation of internal carotid.
F>M,

7

Intraparenchymal haemorrhage

50% due to hypertension.
Sudden onset
Charcot-bouchard microaneurysms, likely to rupture.
Commonly in basal ganglia.

8

Traumatic parenchymal brian inuries

- Concussion: Transient LoC, paralysis, recovery in hours..
- Diffuse axonal injury: vegetative state.
- Contusions: brain hits skull.
- Coup: site of impact.
- Contrecoup: opposite impact.

9

Causative agents of bacterial meningitis

Neonates: GBS, E coli, Listeria;
Young children: Strep pneumoniae, Hi.
Adolescents: N meningitidis, Strep pneumo.
Elderly: Strep pneumo, E coli.

10

Brain tumours

Astrocytomas mainly.
Buzzwords:
- NF2: meningioma,
- ventricula tumour, hydrocephalus: ependymoma,
- indolent, childhood: pilocytic astrocytoma,
- soft, gelatinous, calcified: oligodendroma

11

Pathological proteins in dementia

Lewy body: ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein.
Alzheimer's, Pick's, FTD (Chr17): all have Tau.
Alzheimer's: beta-amyloid also.

12

Alzheimer's -
features, MRI, Tx

Dementia.
Generalised atrophy: wide sulci, narrow, gyri, large ventricles.
Tx: symptomatic: anti-Cholinesterases, nACh-R agonists, Glu blockers.

13

Lewy body dementia

Fluctuating cognition, visual hallucinations.
Pathologcally same as Parkinson's.