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Flashcards in UroPath Deck (10):
1

Common causes of cystitis

E. coli;
Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Strep. faecalis.
>85% G- bacilli

2

Three types of bladder tumour

1. Transitional cell (urothelial):
90% are this. Men 50-80, smoking, exposure to aromatic amines.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma:
Endemic urinary schistosomiasis.
3. Adenocarcinoma:
Rare - extensive GI metaplasia or urachal remnants.

3

Benign prostatic hyperplasia - mediator and Tx

Mediated by dihydrotestosterone.
Tx: TURP, 5alpha reductase inhibitors.

4

What is the Gleason system for?

Grading prostate cancer

5

Test for prostate cancer

PSA over 4 ng/mL

6

Where and how does prostate cancer spread?

Locally to bladder, haematogenously to bone.

7

Causes of acute bacterial prostatitis

E. coli;
Other G- rods, enterococci, staph.

8

Chronic prostatitis: difference between bacterial and abacterial

Bacterial has Hx of recurrent UTIs.

9

Testicular seminoma

Most common germinal (and germinals are 95%).
Peak age 30s.
Radiosensitive.

10

Testicular teratoma

Any age. Malignant when post-pubertal.
Chemosensitive.
Markers: AFP, HCG, LDH.