Flashcards in UroPath Deck (10):
Common causes of cystitis
Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Strep. faecalis.
>85% G- bacilli
Three types of bladder tumour
1. Transitional cell (urothelial):
90% are this. Men 50-80, smoking, exposure to aromatic amines.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma:
Endemic urinary schistosomiasis.
Rare - extensive GI metaplasia or urachal remnants.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia - mediator and Tx
Mediated by dihydrotestosterone.
Tx: TURP, 5alpha reductase inhibitors.
What is the Gleason system for?
Grading prostate cancer
Test for prostate cancer
PSA over 4 ng/mL
Where and how does prostate cancer spread?
Locally to bladder, haematogenously to bone.
Causes of acute bacterial prostatitis
Other G- rods, enterococci, staph.
Chronic prostatitis: difference between bacterial and abacterial
Bacterial has Hx of recurrent UTIs.
Most common germinal (and germinals are 95%).
Peak age 30s.