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Flashcards in CNS infections Deck (22):
1

what can untreated infection in the CNS lead to?

brain herniation-->> death
spinal cord compression-->>paralysis

2

acute encephalitis=?

infection of the parenchyma

3

neutrophils on subarachnoid space is typical of?

bacterial meningitis

4

common cause of viral meningits?

enterovirus e.g ECHO virus

5

how to diagnose viral meningitis?

viral stool culture
throat swab
CSF PCR

6

what can cause viral encephalitis

herpes simplex- diagnose this fast and give high dose acciclovir
varicella zoster- history of shingles..give high does aciclovir

occupation related- rabies
travel related
autoimmune

7

clinical features of encephalitis?

usually insidious onset (sometimes sudden)
stupor, coma
seizures
partial paralysis
confusion
physocosis
speech and memory symptoms

8

what invetsogations would you do for encephalitis?

lumbar puncture
MRI
EEG

9

common cause of bacterial meningitis in the eldderly?

pneumococcal> listeria

10

most common of cause bacterial meningitis in neonates?

listeria, group B strep, E.coli

11

common cause of bacterial meningitis in children

H.influenzae

12

common cause of bacterial meningitis in people ages 10-21?

meningococcal

13

,most common cause of bacterial meningitis in those 21>

pneumococcal > meningococcal

14

what bug causes meningococcal meningitis?

N.meningitidis

normally found in the throat of healthy carriers

symptoms are due to endotoxin

15

where is strep.peumoniae usually found?

nasopharynx


people most likely to get this are diabetics
people in hospital
alcoholics
children

16

how do you normally treat bacterial meningitis?

ceftriaxone

17

how do you treat meningitis caused by listeria?

IV ampicillin/amoxicillin

18

what are the clinical signs of bacterial meningitis?

fever
stiff neck
alteration of consciousness
headache
vomiting
photophobia
lethary
rash
confusion

19

what would these findings from a lumbar puncture indicate/

WBC> 2000
neutrophils >1180
protein> 220mg/dl
glucose

bacterial meningitis

always treat with antibiotics before lumbar puncture
dont wait!!

20

signs of aseptic meningitis?

low WBC
not as high protein
normal glucose

21

as well as antibiotic what should also be given to all patients with bacterial meningitis?

STEROID

22

a fungal meningitis mainly seen in HIV disease

cryptococcal