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Neurology year 3 > NEUROANATOMY > Flashcards

Flashcards in NEUROANATOMY Deck (44):
1

CNS +?

brain and spinal cord

2

telencephalon becomes?

cerebral hemispheres

3

diencephalon becomes

thalamus and hypothalamus

4

mesencephalon becomes?

mid brain

5

metencephalon becomes?

pons, cerebellum

6

myelencephalon becomes?

medulla oblongata

7

brain stem +?

midbrain+ pons+medulla oblongata

8

what types of cells are there in the nervouse system?

neurones and glial cells

9

what are the 4 types of glial cells

astrocytes- support and maintain bllood-brain barrier

oligodendrocytes- produce myelin
microglia- immune monitoring and antigen presentation

ependymal cells- ciliated lining in ventricles

10

dip /valley in the brain

sulcus

11

bump/hill in the brain

gyrus

12

deep sulcus also known as?

fissure

13

grey matter on outside (MAINLY)

white matter on inside?

brain

14

divides motor areas from sensory areas?

central sulcus

15

carries information between the hemispheres

corpus callosum

16

pain perception?

cingulate gyrus

17

function of the fornix

memory

18

what is the interthalamic adhesion?

junction between both thalami

19

in the cerebellum what is a gyrus called?

folium

20

suspends spinal cord in spinal canal?

denticulate ligament

21

name the arteries which supply the spine/spinal cord?

3 major longitudinal arteries (1 ant and 2 post)
segemental arteries
radicular arteries

22

what is the name of the space between dura matter and bone in the spinal cord?

epidural space

23

what system/colunm is this?

fibres cross at the medulla (and also synapse here)

deals with fine touch and proprioception

dorsal column/medial leminuscus system

24

names 2 somatosensory tracts

dorsal colum/medial leminscus system

spinothalamic tract

25

what sensory tract is this?

carries pain, temp, deep pressure

fibres cross segmentally and synapse in thalamus

spinto thalamic

26

name 4 motor tracts?

corticospinal tract

tectospinal tract

reticulospinal tract

vestibulospinal tract

27

what motor tract does this describe?

fine precise movement,
crossed fibres form the lateral

uncrossed fibres form the ventral

85% fibres cross in caudal medulla at decussation of pyramids

corticospinal tract

28

what motor tract is this?

input mostly to cervical segements

thought to mediate relfex head and neck movement due to visual stimuli

tectospinal tract

29

what motor tract does this describe?

fibres originating in pons faciciltate extensor movements and inhibit flexor movements where as fibres from the medulla do the oppsoite

reticulospinal tract

30

what motor tract does this describe?

excitatory input into anti-gravity extensor muscles

fibres originate in vestibular nuclei of pons and medulla

vestibulospinal tract

31

where is tentorium cerebelli?

between brain and cerebellum

32

where is falx cerebelei?

behind cerebellum

33

what attaches cerebellum to the brain stem?

peduncles (3 stalks) superior, middle and inferior

34

what are the 3 layers of the cerebellar cortex?

molecular layer (outer)
pukinje cell layer (middle)

granular cell layer (inner)

35

out put from cerebellum is via?

purkinje fibres

36

function of the basal ganglia?

facilitate purposeful movement and inhibit unwanted movement

role in posture and muscle tone

37

what 5 things make up the basal ganglia?

caudate nucleus
putamen
globus pallidus
subthalamic nuclea
substania nigra

38

degeneration of dopaminergic neurones of substania nigra... what disease is this?

parkinsons

39

how does the basal ganglia work with the motor cortex to enhance normal movement?

enhances outflow of thalamus to enhance desired movement

40

what 2 diseases are associated with basical ganglia dysfunction?

parkinsons and huntingtons

41

unilateral lesions of basal ganglia affect what side?

contralateral side of body

42

damage to the broca area means you will have problems with what?

producing speech

43

damage to wernicke's area means you will have problmes with what?

comprehending language

44

inability to produce language?

aphasia