Flashcards in CNS Stimulants - Lichtblau Deck (20):
CNS effects of sympathomimetics?
Initiative, confidence, and alertness
Increased motor and speech
Decreased food consumption
Stimulate respiration (rate and depth)
*Greatest effect seen if fatigue or lack of sleep is present
What kind of toxicity do you get with acute and chronic sympathomimetics use?
Acute: exaggerated therapy effects
- Cardio - headaches, arrythmia, palpitations, anginal pain, hyperthermia
- CNS - dizziness, agitation, confusion, insomnia, seizures, coma
- Treatment - Antipsychotic & Acidify patient urine
Chronic: Amphetamine psychosis
-hallucinations, delusions, and compulsions
-marked weight loss
-symptoms will resolve in 7-10 days
Do Sympathomimetics work for weight loss?
Yes, sort of. BUT very high abuse potential
What are a couple really good therapeutic uses for sympathomimetics?
What are the three main mechanisms of action of cocaine?
Blocked reuptake of norepinephrine - motor
Blocked reuptake of dopamine - euphoria
Local anesthetic properties
Thombosis (coronary and cerebral)
In-utero brain development damaged
Ecstasy (MDMA) is derived from methamphetamine. How is it altered to change its effects?
A methyl group is added to increase lipophilicity and allow it to rapidly enter the brain
How does ecstasy(MDMA) act differently than amphetamines in its mechanism?
Stimulates the release and inhibits the reuptake of serotonin
Besides acting on serotonin, what does ecstasy affect?
Stimulates release and inhibits reuptake of epinephrine, noreprinephrine, and dopamine
What are bath salts and how are they abused?
They often contain various amphetamine-like chemicals: Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, Mephedrone
ACt as stimulants on brain. High abuse and addiction liability. (cocaine substitute?)
Toxicity with bath salts?
Chest pains, increased heart rate and BP, agitation, hallucinations, paranoia, delusions
Most commonly used xanthine?
Caffeine effects on CNS?
Stimulates cerebral cortex: (1st affected)
-clearer thoughts, less fatigue, mental dexterity
Medullary centers: (2nd affected)
-respiration and vasomotor center
Spinal cord (very large dose)
Apart from acting on the CNS, what kind of crazy stuff could that starbucks be doing to you?
Increased cardiac output
Skeletal Muscle stimulation
Relax Smooth muscle
Removes intracellular Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum
Inhibits phosphodiesterase and leads to elevated levels of cAMP
Nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, which stops sleepiness-inducing adenosine
Toxicity of doses of caffeine, starting at about 1gm:
CNS - Insomnia, excitement, mild delirium, sensory disturbances, convulsions
Cardio - Increased HR and respiration, decreased clotting
Gastric - secretions increased
Therapeutic uses of caffeine?
Cardiac stimulation in congestive heart failure...Controversial
Analeptic - stimulates CNS
Add to ergot alkaloids for migraines
What is modafinil used for?
Treating narcolepsy, shift-sleep disorder, excessive sleepiness from sleep apnea
Modafinil mechanism of action:
Increases dopamine release, blocks its reuptake
Increase NE release
Increase 5HT release
Elevates hypothalamic histamine levels
Activates glutamtergic circuits
Inhibits GABA-ergic transmission