Cognitive Enhancers - Lichtblau Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cognitive Enhancers - Lichtblau Deck (14):

What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

ADHD is characterized by coexistence of:
Attentional problems
These behaviors occur infrequently one without the other


What is the mode of action of all drugs used to treat ADHD?

Raise the levels of DA and NE to bring them back to normal levels


What are two psychostimulant drugs used to treat ADHD?

Another type of drug?

Methyphenidate and amphetamine
(80-90% effective in kids)'



What is the big benefit of the sustained release preparations of psychostimulants used for ADHD?

Removes burden of schools to manage
-only needs to be takne in the morning


The idea of giving amphetamines to a hyperactive child seems scary. How could that possibly be therapeutic?

It's true this is a stimulant. Heres the trick:

Low doses - prefrontal and limbic cortex are activated by psychostimulants

High doses - Areas of the brain involved in arousal and motor activity are stimulated


Interstingly in regards to tolerance, how do ADHD patients respond to stimulants?

They develop tolerance at a much slower pace


So what is so great about Atomoxetine?

It is a highly selective NE reuptake inhibitor

Atomoxetine elevates DA levels in the prefrontal cortex BUT NOT in the nucleus accumbens
This is significant because the N. Accumbens is what mediates the euphoria

This means it has no abuse potential and is the only drug approved for adult ADHD


Memory problems in AD patients coincide with neuronal loss in:

Nucleus Basalis of Meynert


What is the treatment for AD, what is the theory behind its effectiveness?

No cure
Treat with Cholinesterase Inhibitors
This increase ACh levels in the brain to delay progression

Increase in ACh also causes adverse effects like nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea


What is the only drug approved for Alzheimers that does not focus on increasing ACh?

Memantine (Namenda)

It is a NMDA receptor antagonist


What kind of drug is a eugeroic?

"wakefulness enhancer"


How do modafinil and armodafinal work?

Increase noreprinephrine and dopamine

Elevate hypothalamic histamine levels


Why is modafinil no longer used for kids?

Possibilty of Erythema multiforme/Stevens-Johnsons syndrome (terrible skin rash)


What drug is abused commonly as a performance enhancer among college students?