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Flashcards in Cognitive Processes - Ruff Deck (22):

Define cognition:

Our internal life.

It integrates many kinds of information to create a perceptual "whole."

Guides behavior


What is a default network?
Why should you care?

The default network is the parts of your brain that are active at "rest"

Involves: day-dreaming, personal memories, envisioning the future, and moral decisions


What is the task-positive network?

Parts of your brain that are active when performing specific tasks


Do any mental disorders show disturbances in the default network?

Depression, OCD, Schizophrenia, and autism


Difference between unimodal and multimodal cortical organization of the association cortices?

Unimodal - integrates info within one sensory modality

Multimodal - Integrates info across sensory modalities and from other sources


What kinds of cells are receiving the input going into layer 4 of the primary sensory cortex?

stellate cells


What layer of the cortex is recieving unimodal and multimodal input from the thalamus?

Layer 4


What are the unimodal inputs going through the thalamus into layer 4?

Retina - lat. geniculate - layer 4 - Primary Visual Cortex

Cochlea - Med. Geniculate - Primary Auditory Cortex

Skin - VPL - Primary Somatosensory Cortex


What are the multimodal inputs going through the thalamus into layer 4 and where do they output?

Association Cortex - Pulvinar - Parietotemporal and Visual Association Cortex

Sup. Colliulus, olfactory cortex, amygdala, pallidum - MD thalamus - frontal eye fields, ant. congulate

Association Cortex, ant. cingualte, retina - LP thalamus - parietal and visual association cortex, anterior cingulate, striatum

Hypothalamus, hippocampus, cingulate - ant. thalamus - posterior cingulate


layers 2 and 3 send outputs to?

Other cortical areas?


Layers 5 and 6 send outputs to:

6 to thalamus
5 to brainstem, striatum, and spinal cord


Explain the differences between the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere's parietal association cortex:

• Nondominant hemisphere
– Attention
– Visuospatial localization: searching or reaching for an object
– Spatial relationships: binding the elements of a visual scene together into a single image

• Dominant hemisphere
– Skilled movements
– Right-left orientation


If you are trying to listen for your name to be called for a table in a noisy restaurant, what part of you brain are you working?

non-dominant parietal association cortex


You ask a stroke patient to show you how they would hammer in a nail. They grab their left arm with their right hand as if it were a hammer and gesture swinging the hammer to pound a nail. Anything wrong here?

Yes, if the patient has trouble with tasks like this it is called ideomotor apraxia.

Using the body in place of an imaginary tool indicates damage.

The damage will be in the posterior parietal cortex of the dominant hemisphere


Let's say an individual gets a tumor in the area of the non-dominant posterior parietal cortex. What is a possible deficit?

Spatial neglect

(ignore everything in the opposite visual field. Drawing things, food on a plate, strange limb in their bed that happens to be their leg... etc.


If your inferior temporal cortex is damaged it is possible you can develop what problem?

Recognition problems like:
Prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize faces


If you can only recognize an object after you touch it, despite having intact visual senses, then you probably have which disorder?
What kind of lesion might you have?

Visual agnosia

Damage would be in the visual cortex (unimodal)


Damage to the unimodal somatosensory cortex would mean that you could only identify an object after....?

You could see it/ hear it/ etc.
Identifying an object in a bag by touch without looking would be impossible.


What kind of lesion would make the Wisconsin card-sorting game very frustrating?

A pre-frontal cortex lesion


What direction does maturation of the cortex occur?

Roughly a posterior to anterior gradient

Local connnection first, then long-range

Last areas to mature are often first to degenerate


What happens to gray matter as the cortex matures?

Gray matter becomes thinner as axonal connections become more robust


Doing very poorly on the stroop test might indicate what sort of lesion?

posterior parietal cortex since it tests selective attention


(This is an edit from Victoria. I had mislabeled this one! Sorry guys!)