Coastal change and conflict Flashcards Preview

Geography > Coastal change and conflict > Flashcards

Flashcards in Coastal change and conflict Deck (86)
Loading flashcards...
1

What type of rock is easily eroded by the sea?

Soft rock

2

Name a soft rock landscape

Bay

3

What will landscapes be like if they are soft rock?

Less rugged and less steep than hard rock coasts

4

What is hard rock resistant to?

All types of erosion

5

What will hard rock landscapes be like?

Cliffs will be high, steep and rugged

6

Name some hard rock landscapes

Wave-cut platforms and headlands where caves, arches and stacks are formed

7

What are joints?

Small cracks in rocks

8

What are faults?

Bigger cracks in rocks

9

What do cracks and faults make rocks more vulnerable of?

Erosion

10

What happens to rocks that have more cracks and faults?

They are eroded faster

11

What are other factors of rates of erosion?

Geological structure
Wave climate
Local currents and tidal range
Groundwater levels

12

What is geological structure?

If it is soft or hard rock

13

What is wave climate?

How powerful waves are, wave direction, wave height

14

If there is high groundwater what happens to the cliffs?

They become more saturated and are more vulnerable

15

What are concordant coasts?

Coasts that are made up of the same type of rock and are parallel to the sea

16

What are discordant coasts?

Coasts were the type of rock alternates in layers and are perpendicular to the sea

17

What are normally formed at discordant coasts?

Headlands and bays

18

Why are bays formed?

Due to rapid erosion of less resistant rocks such as clay

19

What is formed due to the formation of a bay?

Headlands are left sticking out as they are made from hard rock, such as granite/chalk, which is resistant to erosion

20

What are wave-cut platforms?

Areas of flat rock at the base of the cliff

21

How is a stack formed?

When an arch collapses

22

How is a stump formed?

When a stack is eroded by wind and water

23

How is an arch formed?

When two caves erode back from either side of a headland and meet in the middle

24

How is a cave formed?

When the waves erode a weakness in the rock such as a joint or a fault

25

How is a wave-cut platform eroded?

Wave-cut notch is undercutting by the waves while the rock face overhangs
Cliff retreats inland as the overhanging rock has collapsed
Wave-cut platform is formed

26

What is solution?

Chemical action by seawater on some rocks, especially limestone

27

What is attrition?

The rocks and pebbles carried by the waves rub together and break down into smaller pieces

28

What is abrasion?

Breaking waves throw sand and pebbles against the coast during storms

29

What is hydraulic action?

Waves compress air into the cracks in the rock, forcing them apart and weakening the rock

30

Describe a destructive wave

The swash is weak and the backwash is strong, which means material is dragged back down a beach into the sea