Flashcards in Challenges of an urbanising world Deck (62)
What is a megacity?
A city with at least 10million inhabitants
What is a world city?
A city with a dominant role in global processes
What is an urban primacy?
The most important city in a city, which dominates the rest of the country
What is hinterland?
The region around a city
What is rural- urban migration?
When people change where they live from rural to urban areas
What is international migration?
When people move to live in another country
What is internal migration?
When people move from one part of the country to live somewhere else within the same country
What is natural increase?
The difference between a the number of births and deaths in a year
What is the main cause of rapid urbanisation?
Rural- urban migration
Why is natural increase and migration connected?
As it is usually young people who migrate to live in cities and the birth rate is higher for young people than the death rate for old people
Why does economic growth create a multiplier effect?
Because more people move to the city so more people create bigger workforces and more industries, which then creates more jobs. There is also more customers and more people means more houses needed.
What is primary employment?
The extraction of raw materials from the ground or sea
What is secondary employment?
The manufacture of goods using raw materials
What is tertiary employment?
The provision of a service
What is quaternary employment?
The provision of information and expert help
What is formal employment?
Jobs that pay taxes and provide workers with job security and legal protection
Which type of job is hard to get in developing countries?
What is informal employment?
Jobs that are not regulated: informal workers pay no taxes but are not protected by the law
What is an example of informal employment?
What are the working conditions like in emerging or developing countries?
They may be unsafe, stressful or uncomfortable. For example long working hours without breaks or harsh penalties
What is informal employment good for?
They are easy jobs to get for new arrivals
What is urbanisation?
An increase in the number of people living in the cities
What is suburbanisation?
The movement of people from the centre of the cities to its outer areas
What is counter-urbanisation?
The movement of people out of the cities to the countryside
What is regeneration?
New investment into old, rundown parts of the city
What is site?
The land where the settlement is built
What is situation?
The position of the settlement in relation to other features
What is connectivity?
How well a place is connected to other places for example through transport, the internet or trade
Why has Mumbai grown?
High rate of natural increase
City has strong economy
Huge informal sector
Rural- urban migration fact
1000 national migrants arrive in Mumbai daily- 9 out of 10 from rural areas
High rate of natural increase fact
Indians still like big families
City has strong economy fact
Foreign investment from 1990s saw many services outsourced to Mumbai from developed countries. It is now the centre of hi-tech industries
Huge informal sector fact
Most people in Mumbai are poor and live in slums
Why do people want to live in Mumbai?
Access to jobs (can send money back home)
Job promotion and transfers
Access to better education
Access to better healthcare
Better marriage opportunities
Due to rapid population there is a house shortage, so where do people live?
Slum housing- often with many people sharing rooms
Shanty towns- where people build housing out of whatever materials they can find
What are the challenges of the slums?
There is no clean water, electricity or sewage disposal
Crime is high
People are malnourished
Sewage creates a breeding ground for disease
What is the water supply and waste removal like?
People drink water from polluted rivers
People go to the toilet in waste ground, disposing their excrement in plastic bags therefore disease spreads
Employment and opportunities
Most people work in the informal sector so the pay is low and not always regular. Also working conditions are dangerous and they have so security so if they are ill they don't get paid.
What happens due to the pay being low?
Many children are put to work instead of going to school so it limits their opportunities in life
What are the services like for poor people?
The range of services is very small and basic. For example there is street barbers who has basic facilities but will charge an affordable price
What is traffic like?
It is very congested as the desire and ownership of cars is very high which means the streets are always clogged with cars
What is sustainability?
In cities, this means planning for an efficient city that uses less energy and minimises pollution to create higher living standards
Advantages of top-down strategies
They are large scale so the whole city can be tackled
The city government have political power, which means they can get land
Government can pass out laws to change people's behaviours
Disadvantages of top-down strategies
Imposes changes on people that they may not like- slum clearance
City government can be biased- working to help companies not the poor
Can be very expensive and complicated
Advantages of bottom-up advantages
Targets specific needs for particular communities
Can have positive multiplier effects
Disadvantages of bottom-up
Cannot fic the city wide problems like congestion
It is not their job to fix problems it is the governments
Can cause conflicts with the government as they are helping the slums
Name the top-down strategy
What did Vision Mumbai do?
Created a monoline, which was very cheap so it was accessible to all
How many passengers could the monorail hold?
How much did the monorail cost?
What was a disadvantage of the monorail though?
Building new railway lines caused slum houses to be bulldozed
What else did Vison Mumbai do?
Gave each family a new apartment, who were living in Dharavi, if they could provide proof of living there
What was a disadvantage of giving people apartments?
200,000 people live in Dharavi and only 50,000 have documents to show for so the rest was left homeless
Name the bottom-up strategy
What did SPARC do?
They built toilet blocks, which anyone could purchase a permit for and use that month
How many toilets did they build?
How much could they purchase the permit for?
Name another bottom-up strategy
What did LSS do?
They set up clinics, mostly around slums, to help cure leprosy
How many patients did they cure?
What was the disadvantage of LSS?
Only 75% of people were cured of it