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Flashcards in Challenges of an urbanising world Deck (62)
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1

What is a megacity?

A city with at least 10million inhabitants

2

What is a world city?

A city with a dominant role in global processes

3

What is an urban primacy?

The most important city in a city, which dominates the rest of the country

4

What is hinterland?

The region around a city

5

What is rural- urban migration?

When people change where they live from rural to urban areas

6

What is international migration?

When people move to live in another country

7

What is internal migration?

When people move from one part of the country to live somewhere else within the same country

8

What is natural increase?

The difference between a the number of births and deaths in a year

9

What is the main cause of rapid urbanisation?

Rural- urban migration

10

Why is natural increase and migration connected?

As it is usually young people who migrate to live in cities and the birth rate is higher for young people than the death rate for old people

11

Why does economic growth create a multiplier effect?

Because more people move to the city so more people create bigger workforces and more industries, which then creates more jobs. There is also more customers and more people means more houses needed.

12

What is primary employment?

The extraction of raw materials from the ground or sea

13

What is secondary employment?

The manufacture of goods using raw materials

14

What is tertiary employment?

The provision of a service

15

What is quaternary employment?

The provision of information and expert help

16

What is formal employment?

Jobs that pay taxes and provide workers with job security and legal protection

17

Which type of job is hard to get in developing countries?

Formal employment

18

What is informal employment?

Jobs that are not regulated: informal workers pay no taxes but are not protected by the law

19

What is an example of informal employment?

Street seller

20

What are the working conditions like in emerging or developing countries?

They may be unsafe, stressful or uncomfortable. For example long working hours without breaks or harsh penalties

21

What is informal employment good for?

They are easy jobs to get for new arrivals

22

What is urbanisation?

An increase in the number of people living in the cities

23

What is suburbanisation?

The movement of people from the centre of the cities to its outer areas

24

What is counter-urbanisation?

The movement of people out of the cities to the countryside

25

What is regeneration?

New investment into old, rundown parts of the city

26

What is site?

The land where the settlement is built

27

What is situation?

The position of the settlement in relation to other features

28

What is connectivity?

How well a place is connected to other places for example through transport, the internet or trade

29

Why has Mumbai grown?

Rural-urban migration
High rate of natural increase
City has strong economy
Huge informal sector

30

Rural- urban migration fact

1000 national migrants arrive in Mumbai daily- 9 out of 10 from rural areas

31

High rate of natural increase fact

Indians still like big families

32

City has strong economy fact

Foreign investment from 1990s saw many services outsourced to Mumbai from developed countries. It is now the centre of hi-tech industries

33

Huge informal sector fact

Most people in Mumbai are poor and live in slums

34

Why do people want to live in Mumbai?

Access to jobs (can send money back home)
Job promotion and transfers
Access to better education
Access to better healthcare
Better marriage opportunities

35

Due to rapid population there is a house shortage, so where do people live?

Slum housing- often with many people sharing rooms
Shanty towns- where people build housing out of whatever materials they can find

36

What are the challenges of the slums?

There is no clean water, electricity or sewage disposal
Crime is high
People are malnourished
Sewage creates a breeding ground for disease

37

What is the water supply and waste removal like?

People drink water from polluted rivers
People go to the toilet in waste ground, disposing their excrement in plastic bags therefore disease spreads

38

Employment and opportunities

Most people work in the informal sector so the pay is low and not always regular. Also working conditions are dangerous and they have so security so if they are ill they don't get paid.

39

What happens due to the pay being low?

Many children are put to work instead of going to school so it limits their opportunities in life

40

What are the services like for poor people?

The range of services is very small and basic. For example there is street barbers who has basic facilities but will charge an affordable price

41

What is traffic like?

It is very congested as the desire and ownership of cars is very high which means the streets are always clogged with cars

42

What is sustainability?

In cities, this means planning for an efficient city that uses less energy and minimises pollution to create higher living standards

43

Advantages of top-down strategies

They are large scale so the whole city can be tackled
The city government have political power, which means they can get land
Government can pass out laws to change people's behaviours

44

Disadvantages of top-down strategies

Imposes changes on people that they may not like- slum clearance
City government can be biased- working to help companies not the poor
Can be very expensive and complicated

45

Advantages of bottom-up advantages

Targets specific needs for particular communities
Can have positive multiplier effects

46

Disadvantages of bottom-up

Cannot fic the city wide problems like congestion
It is not their job to fix problems it is the governments
Can cause conflicts with the government as they are helping the slums

47

Name the top-down strategy

Vision Mumbai

48

What did Vision Mumbai do?

Created a monoline, which was very cheap so it was accessible to all

49

How many passengers could the monorail hold?

15000

50

How much did the monorail cost?

11 rupees

51

What was a disadvantage of the monorail though?

Building new railway lines caused slum houses to be bulldozed

52

What else did Vison Mumbai do?

Gave each family a new apartment, who were living in Dharavi, if they could provide proof of living there

53

What was a disadvantage of giving people apartments?

200,000 people live in Dharavi and only 50,000 have documents to show for so the rest was left homeless

54

Name the bottom-up strategy

SPARC

55

What did SPARC do?

They built toilet blocks, which anyone could purchase a permit for and use that month

56

How many toilets did they build?

800

57

How much could they purchase the permit for?

25rupees

58

Name another bottom-up strategy

LSS

59

What did LSS do?

They set up clinics, mostly around slums, to help cure leprosy

60

How many patients did they cure?

20,000

61

What was the disadvantage of LSS?

Only 75% of people were cured of it

62

What was the disadvantage of SPARC?

It was the government's job to improve services