Development Dynamics Flashcards Preview

Geography > Development Dynamics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development Dynamics Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name some development indicators

GDP, HDI, literacy rate, corruption perception index

2

What does HDI measure?

life expectancy, literacy rate, GDP per capita and length of schooling

3

What do demographic indicators of development relate to?

To a country's population

4

What is birth rate?

The number of live births per 1000 people per year

5

What is death rate?

The number of deaths per 1000 people per year

6

What is fertility rate?

The average number of births per woman

7

What is infant mortality?

The number of infants per 1000 who die before they are one

8

What is life expectancy?

The number of years a person can expect to live

9

What is maternal mortality?

The number of mothers per 100,000 who die in childbirth

10

What is dependency ratio?

The proportion of people below or above the normal working age

11

Name the three things a country can be

Developing, emerging and developed

12

What is the development gap?

The development gap is the inequalities between the HIC's and LIC's

13

What are the two theories?

Modernisation theory and development theory

14

Who created the modernisation theory?

Walt Rostow

15

What does Rostow believe?

That countries develop at different stages but would catch up if they "modernised"

16

What are the five stages?

The traditional society, pre-conditions society, take off, drive to maturity, high mass consumption

17

What are the criticisms of the modernisation theory?

It suggests all countries start off equal but they're not
Suggests development is linear

18

Who created the dependency theory?

Andre Frank

19

What did Frank believe?

He believed that some countries are trapped at stages 1 and 2 of Rostow's model by wealthy developed countries

20

What are the two parts of the dependency model?

The core (developed) and the periphery (developing)

21

What does the core do?

It exports high valued goods to the periphery while the periphery exports low valued primary products

22

What are the criticisms with the dependency model?

It is too simple
Some periphery countries have developed

23

What will help India develop?

Geographical location provides good access to markets
Monsoon climate and fertile river plains gives India food security

24

What will hold India back?

The caste system discriminates against the people, keeping them poor
Many people live in poverty (40mil)

25

What threats is there?

There is potential conflict with Pakistan

26

Why has India developed?

India's government have chosen to liberise the economy and invest in education, transport and communication
India has become increasingly connected with the rest of the world via TNC's, outsourcing and tourism

27

Name economic benefits and costs

B: India's HDI has increased from 0.38 to 0.49
C:400mil still below the poverty line, many of whom living in rural areas

28

Name social benefits and costs

B: The average Indian child spends 12years in school, increased from 2years in 1991
C:Womens' literacy rate is still 17% lower than men's

29

Name environmental benefits and costs

B: India is now investing in renewable energy such as wind power
C: India has the third largest emitter of carbon dioxide

30

Name political benefits and costs

B: The government has signed up to cut its greenhouse gases at COP21 Climate Summit in 2015
C: Water resources are low due to population increase. India could divert the river Indus in the Kashmir region but this could lead to military conflict with Pakistan