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Flashcards in coasts Deck (15)
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what are the charceteristics of destructive waves

strong wash and weak backwash

steep high waves that are close together

come into the beach quickly

create a steep beach


what are the charcteristics of constructive waves ?

strong swash and weak backwash

low waves , more gently sloping with longer gap between them

gentle beach


what is hydraulic action ?

is a type of erosion. water is forced into cracks in the rock , is compresssed squashed and forces the rock apart.


what is abrasion ?

Is a type of erosion. losse rocks are thrown against6 cliff wearing away at the rock like sand paper.


what is attrition ?

Is a type of erosion. Loose rocks are swirled around and are worn in smaller , rounder pieces.


what is solution erosion wise ?

sea water dissolves material from the rock


what is suspension?

fine sediment is carried along in suspension in the water


what is solution transportation wise?

dissolved materials are carried along in soloution - you cant see it


what is traction?

large pebbles and cobbles are rolled along the sea bed?


what is saltation?

small pebbles are moved when one pebbles hits another , causing it to bounce


explain longshore drift

long shore drift transports sediment in a zig zag route

the wind blows towards the land at an angle 9this is called the prevailing wind direction)

this cause the waves to approach the beach at a slight angle.As they break , the swash carries material up the beach at an angle. Gravity causes the material to be carried straight back down the beach.


explain the formation of caves arches stacks and stumps

  1. a large crack is opened up by hydraulic action
  2. the crack grows into a cave by hydraulic action and abrasion
  3. the cave becomes larger
  4. the cave breaks through te headland forming a natural arch
  5. the arch is erodd and collapses
  6. this leaves a tall rock stack
  7. the stack is eroded forming a stump


what are the cause of the holderness coast being eroded rapidly

  • owerful destructive waves caused by strong winds and long fetch
  • cliffs made of soft boulder clay
  • eroded material is transported out to sea maning he beaches are small
  • sea defences along the coast have made the problem worse in some areas


what are effects  the holderness coast line eroding

  • buildings close to the cliff edge are at risk of falling into the sea and they wont get compensation for this
  • los of diversity in wildlife due to lack of sediment
  • protecting the coast is costly
  • easington gas terminal is close to the sea - supplies the countrywith energy
  • value of homes decrease as no one wants to live there
  • businesses at risk of losing money