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Flashcards in Coasts Case Studies Deck (28)
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Transect of Psammosere in Studland, Dorset

PIONEER STAGE: Seeds blown by wind, sand soaks quickly
BUILDING STAGE: Extremophiles bind sand with roods, rot to humus which makes the sand more nutritious- plants colonise (Marram grass)
FINAL STAGE: Larger plants and more complex species grow, earlier plants out competed for water and light
dune slack appear when water table uncovered, water tolerant plants grow
VEGETATION STABILISE SEDIMENT: Plants provide protective layer over sand and bind together further


How long does it take for a sand dune sequence to develope

50-100 yrs


Population of Osaka, Japan

over 2.5 million people


Economic assets of Osaka

$200 Billion


Dangers faced in Osaka

Frequent storm surges and Typhoons,
Sea level rise of 3.3 feet puts 4.1 million more at risk of flooding


Sea level rise in New Zealand

Hawks Bay- $14 billion worth of infrastructure
10m sea level rise- 40% of population at risk


Maldives population

400 000


Major industry in maldives

90% of government money from tourism taxes


Highest land point in Maldives



Key problems in Maldives

1) Coral reef destruction- removal of natural buffer
2) Wave erosion- 80-90% of islands affected
3) Fresh water shortages- Salt water contamination
4) Dwindling fish stock- 40% decrease in tuna stock


Maldives adaptation and mitigation to sea level rise

Carbon neutral action 2020
Wind farms + solar panels
Abandoning most at risk islands, building upwards


Strategies for sea level rise in Mediterranean and their problems

Dam from Gibralter rock to Morocco, 1200 ft above sea level, costing $275 Billion
2ft of water evaporates per year in the Med
Dam stops flow of water from Atlantic, creating a stagnant salt water lake


The problem for Netherlands

1/2 of land below seas level after land reclamation,
6 dams and 4 storm surge barriers reduce flood risk
Plans for potential floating cities to help adapt to sea level rise


Problems caused by sea level rise in India

£20 billion income at risk
intensified typhoons in Mumbai


Threats of sea level rise in florida

Coastal powerplant at risk at 4ft rise
Fresh water contamination risk at 5ft rise
Porous geology means water intrusion is easier
Complex levee system is not a long term solution and very expensive


Storm surges in New Orleans Hurricane Katrina

Levee system and sea wall overwhelmed, failed in 50 places despite $15 billion investment in strengthening it
New designe still only cope with current storm surge heights, which are projected to increase


How is the Nile Delta built up

Flocculationcaused by contacts between salt and fresh water causing deposition


How long is the Nile Delta and why is it important

25 000 km, home to 40 million people
Egypt only economic source


What is causing the problem in the Nile Delta

Fish farming increased 13%
High Ashwan dam causing deterioration of coatal lagoons, loss of wetlands
Farmers deconstructing sand dunes


What is the problem in the Nile Delta

1/5 of Delta vunerable to salt water intrusion, coastal retreat of 2.7km^2
Estimated sea rise of 84cm this century
Salt water intrusion, coastal erosion


Number of Kiribati atolls (coral islands)

33, 31/33 inhabited


Population of Kiribati and average income

116 00 people, $1685 GDP per capita- population facing cultural extinction


Kiribati average height above sea level

6m above sea level


Major problems in Kiribati

Fresh water contamination- 1 wave could contaminate all water systems in capital for 2 yrs


Kiribati adaptation strategies

"Migrating with dignity" government sending people for training in australia so they aree prepared when they leave
Tuna reserve not exploited as a political statement about sacrifices made for social gain


What are they doing in Java

Mangrove removal for the sake of agricultural development- removal of natural buffer
Mangroves reduce height of wave by 40% in 100m
Stabalise and trap sediment


How many people are at risk of flooding in Java

3000 villages


Characteristics of Lulworth Cove

Concordant coastline
Chalk and clay/ limestone
Fractures and fissures