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Flashcards in Water EQ1 Deck (39)
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1

define a store

stocks of water, places where water is held

2

define a flux

measurement of the rate of flow between stores

3

define a process

the physical factors which drive the fluxes of water between stores

4

what kind of system is the hydrological cycle

closed

5

what forces drive the hydrological cycle

solar energy and gravitational potential energy

6

define cryosphere

frozen water in the hydrological system

7

define blue water

freshwater stores in rivers, streams and lakes- visible componant in cycle

8

define green water

freshwater stored in soil and vegetation- invisible componant of cycle

9

What are the main stores of water in order of percentage content

oceans (96%)
ice caps and glaciers (2%)
groundwater (1%)
rivers and lakes (0.01%)

10

What is the composition of freshwater stores

Ice caps and glaciers (69%)
groundwater (30%)
rivers and lakes (1%)

11

define residence time

the average time a water molecule will spend in a store or reservoir

12

which type of store has the longest residence time

ice caps- 15 000 years

13

which type of store has the shortest residence time

atmospheric moisture- 10 days

14

define drainage basin

a subsystem within the hydrological cycle. it is an open system with inputs and outputs

15

how does climate effect the drainage basin cycle

influences the type of precipitation and the amount of precipitation overall and the amount of evaporation. climate can also in some locations have an impact on vegetation type

16

how soil effects the drainage basin cycle

soil determine the amount of infiltration and throughflow and type of vegetation

17

how geology effects the drainage basin cycle

impacts subsufrace processes like percolation and groundwater flow as well as soil formations

18

how relief effects the drainage basin cycle

impact amount of precipitation and runoff

19

how vegetation effects the drainage basin cycle

presence or absense of precipitation has major impact on infiltration, interception and occurrence ofoverland flow as well as transpiration rates

20

human factors affecting the drainage basin cycle

deforestation
abstraction
construction of dams
river defences
overpopulation
pollution (industial and agricultural)
global warming
unbanisation

21

define water budget

annual balance between input and output

22

equation to calculate water budget

precipitation= streamflow + evapotranspiration +/- changes in store

23

define river regime

annuel variation in discharge or flow of a river

24

major factors effecting regime of a river

drainage basin area
maximum altitude
variation in altitude
geology
mean annual precipitation
mean discharge
main land use

25

define simple regime

a river which experiences periods of seasonally high and low discharge contained within one climactic zone and relief

26

define complex regime

larger rivers cross several different relief and climactic zones and therefore experience the effects of different seasonal climactic events

27

define antecedent conditions

ground conditions before a storm eg) dry or already saturated

28

Define vegetation storage

Moisture taken up by vegetation and held within plants

29

Define surface storage

Surface water in lakes, rivers and ponds

30

Define groundwater storage

Water held within permeable rocks, also known as aquifers