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Flashcards in Water EQ 3 Deck (10)
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1

Define water stress

If renewable resources between 1000-1700m3 per capita then a country is said to be experiencing water stress

There are often restrictions on usage as well as conflict for water supplies and declining standard of harvests and security

2

Define water scarcity

If renewable water resources are between 500-1000 m3 per capita then a country is said to be experiencing water scarcity

There is usually open tension and conflict, competition for the extraction of groundwater and insufficient flows to the natural environment

3

Define absolute water scarcity

If renewable water resources are very low then there is widespread restriction on use

4

Define Climate variability

Uneven distribution of rainfall globally me and there are areas of water deficit and surplus

5

Physical causes of water insecurity

Climate variability
Seasonality
Geology

6

Human causes of water insecurity

Increasing population and urbanisation
Over abstraction from rivers, lakes and aquifers
Improving living standards
Misuse of water
Salt industries
Industrialisation
Agriculture

7

Define Interception

Temporary storage when water is caught by plants, buildings and other hard surfaces before reaching the soil

8

How do consequences of flooding differ between developed and developing countries

Post flood morbidity higher in developing as people unable to swim/ spread of water borne disease

Industry disparity- developing dependent on agriculture

9

What are the environmental impacts of flooding

Recharged ground water systems
Transports sediment and nutrients inland
Subsistence farming reliant of flooding for transport of nutrients

10

What are the Helsinki rules (1966)

Water should be delegated based on:
Natural factors
Social and economic needs
Downstream impacts
Dependency
Prior use
Efficiency