Common Skin Rashes Flashcards Preview

NURS 5200 Holistic Health Assessment & Therapeutics for the Advanced Practice Nurse > Common Skin Rashes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Common Skin Rashes Deck (24)
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1

_____ usually develops in early childhood and is more common in people who have a family history of the condition.
The main symptom is a rash that typically appears on the arms and behind the knees, but can also appear anywhere.
Treatment includes avoiding soap and other irritants. Certain creams or ointments also may provide relief from the itching.

Atopic Dermatitis

2

_______ is a fine, itchy, scaly rash that usually appears first as a single patch on the chest, abdomen or back. This rash (herald patch) may spread as small patches to other parts of the back, chest and neck. The rash may form a pattern on the back that resembles a _______.

_________ usually goes away without treatment in four to 10 weeks, but it can last months. Medicated lotions may lessen itchiness and speed the disappearance of the rash. Often, though, no treatment is required

Christmas tree rash (pityriasis rosea)

Christmas Tree

Pityriasis rosea

3

_______ is a rash caused by direct contact with or an allergic reaction to certain substances. Irritant contact dermatitis (A) usually produces a dry, scaly, non-itchy rash. Many substances, such as cleaning products or industrial chemicals, that you come into contact with cause this condition. The irritant will cause a rash on anyone exposed to it, but some people's skin may be more easily affected.

________ produces a very itchy, red rash with bumps and sometimes blisters. Common allergy-causing agents (allergens) are latex rubber, nickel and poison ivy. It develops after your initial exposure to the allergen.

To treat your rash, try to figure out what caused it and avoid that substance. You can also apply medicated cream to ease the discomfort of your symptoms.

Contact Dermititis

Allergic contact dermititis

4

A rash may occur as a side effect of taking a drug or as an allergic reaction to it. A _____ may be caused by many different medications, including antibiotics and water pills (diuretics). Some drugs are more likely to produce a rash if the skin is exposed to sunlight.

A drug rash, which usually starts within the _____ of taking a new medication, often begins as red spots. The spots spread and merge, covering large areas of the body. If you stop taking the drug that caused the rash, it will usually clear up in days to weeks.

Rarely, a _____ is part of a more serious, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that affects the respiratory system and other organs. These severe reactions require emergency care.

drug rash

first week

drug rash

5

______ occurs when the flow of sweat is obstructed, usually due to hot, humid weather or overdressing.

______ (A) is a type of heat rash that appears as clusters of small, red bumps that produce a pricking or stinging sensation. _______ (B) appears as clear, fluid-filled bumps that generally produce no other signs or symptoms.

_____ isn't serious and usually resolves when the affected area cools. Cool compresses or a cool bath might help. You can prevent heat rash by wearing loose, lightweight clothing and avoiding excessive heat and humidity.

Heat rash (miliaria)

Prickly heat (miliaria rubra)

Miliaria crystalline

Heat rash

6

______ is inflammation caused by skin-to-skin friction, most often in warm, moist areas of the body, such as the groin, between folds of skin on the abdomen, under the breasts, under the arms or between toes. The affected skin may be sensitive or painful, and severe cases can result in oozing sores, cracked skin or bleeding.

____ usually clears up if you find a way to keep the affected areas as clean and dry as possible. Try wearing loosefitting clothing and using powder to reduce skin-to-skin friction in affected areas. Weight loss may be helpful as well.

Sometimes, a bacterial or fungal infection can develop at the site of your _____ . If this happens, you may need a medication to heal your skin.

Intertrigo (in-tur-TRY-go) is

Intertrigo

intertrigo

7

_____ is an inflammatory condition that can affect your skin and mucous membranes. On the skin it usually appears as purplish, often itchy, flat-topped bumps (lesions). In your mouth, vagina and other areas covered by a mucous membrane, lichen planus forms lacy white patches.

The condition may develop gradually over a couple of months. After that, it rarely worsens, but it may persist for months or years. You can usually control mild lichen planus symptoms on the skin, such as stinging and itching, by applying cool compresses or aloe vera gel. More-severe symptoms may require drug treatment. Lesions on mucous membranes tend to take longer to heal and often recur.

Lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus)

8

_____ is the rapid buildup of rough, scaly skin that occurs when the life cycle of skin cells rapidly increases. The extra skin skin cells form thick, silvery scales and red patches that are itchy and sometimes painful.

The condition tends to flare up periodically and then subside for a time.

For some people, _____is a mild nuisance. For others, it can be disabling, affecting extensive areas of skin for long periods and often occurring with a distinct type of arthritis -______. Topical medications and light therapy may help reduce signs and symptoms of the skin lesions.

Psoriasis (suh-RIE-uh-sis)

psoriasis

(psoriatic arthritis)

9

______ is a fungal infection that appears as itchy, red, scaly, slightly raised, rings on the body. The ring grows outward as the infection spreads, and the center area becomes less actively infected.

______ often spreads by direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or animal. Treatment usually requires prescription antifungal medication that you apply to your skin.

_______ in the groin is called jock itch , and a tinea infection of the foot is called athlete's foot _____ .

Ringworm of the body (tinea corporis)

Ringworm

A tinea infection

(tinea cruris)

(tinea pedis)

10

______ is a long-term (chronic) skin condition of adults that causes redness in the face and may produce small red or pus-filled bumps.

Most people experience occasional flare-ups, usually in response to factors that increase blood flow to the surface of your skin. Triggers vary from person to person. Possible triggers include certain foods, skin products, extreme temperatures, alcohol consumption, emotional stress and sun exposure.

____ has no cure, but treatments may control or reduce your signs and symptoms.

Rosacea (roe-ZAY-she-uh


Rosacea

11

______ is a pain rash caused by the ____ virus. If you've ever had _____, the virus remains inactive in nerve tissue. Years later, the virus may reactivate, causing shingles.

A ______ outbreak may start with vaguely uncomfortable sensations, itching or pain with no obvious external cause. Within several days, clusters of small blisters — similar to the ____ rash — appear in a defined area on one side of your body. Over a few more days, the blisters break, leaving behind sores that crust over. Within about four weeks, the crusts fall off, and the pain and itching usually go away.

Antiviral drugs may lessen your pain or decrease the likelihood of persistent pain after the rash has healed. A ____vaccine is recommended for most people age 60 or over.

Shingles (herpes zoster)

chickenpox (varicella-zoster)

chickenpox

shingles

chickenpox

shingles

12

_____ is a burning or itchy rash caused by an allergic reaction to a waterborne parasite that burrows into the top layer of skin. The parasites soon die, but you're temporarily left with tiny bumps or blisters.

_____ isn't serious and usually clears up on its own within a week. At-home remedies — soothing lotions, lukewarm baths with colloidal oatmeal or baking soda — may ease the itchiness.

Swimmer's itch (cercarial dermatitis)

Swimmer's itch

13

These small, scaly patches are caused by too much sun, and commonly occur on the head, neck, or hands, but can be found elsewhere. They can be an early warning sign of skin cancer, but it’s hard to tell whether a particular patch will continue to change over time and become cancerous. Most do not, but doctors recommend early treatment to prevent the development of squamous cell skin cancer. Fair-skinned, blond, or red-haired people with blue or green eyes are most at risk.

Actinic Keratosis (Solar Keratosis)

14

is a precancerous condition that usually appears on the lower lips. Scaly patches or persistent roughness of the lips may be present. Less common symptoms include swelling of the lip, loss of the sharp border between the lip and skin, and prominent lip lines

Actinic Cheilitis (Farmer's Lip)

15

appears as a funnel-shaped growth that extends from a red base on the skin. It is composed of compacted keratin (the same protein in nails). It is a specialized type of actininc keratosis. The size and shape of the growth can vary considerably, but most are a few millimeters in length. Squamous cell carcinoma can be found at the base. It usually occurs in fair-skinned elderly adults with a history of significant sun exposure.

Cutaneous Horns

16

Although very few moles become cancer, abnormal or atypical moles can develop into melanoma over time. "Normal" moles can appear flat or raised or may begin flat and become raised over time. The surface is typically smooth. Moles that may have changed into skin cancer are often

irregularly shaped, contain many colors, and are larger than the size of a pencil eraser. Most moles develop in youth or young adulthood. It's unusual to acquire a mole in the adult years.

17

Malignant melanoma, especially in the later stages, is

serious and treatment is difficult. Early diagnosis and treatment can increase the survival rate. Nonmelanoma skin cancers include basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Both are common and are almost always cured when found early and treated. People who've had skin cancer once are at risk for getting it again; they should get a checkup at least once a year.

18

Melanoma is not as common as other types of

kin cancer, but it's the most serious and potentially deadly. Possible signs of melanoma include a change in the appearance of a mole or pigmented area. Consult a doctor if a mole changes in size, shape, or color, has irregular edges, is more than one color, is asymmetrical, or itches, oozes, or bleeds.

19

This nonmelanoma skin cancer may appear as a firm red nodule, a scaly growth that bleeds or develops a crust, or a sore that doesn't heal. It most often occurs on the nose, forehead, ears, lower lip, hands, and other sun-exposed areas of the body.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

20

also called squamous cell carcinoma "in situ." It is a type of skin cancer that spreads outward on the surface of the skin. By contrast, "invasive" squamous cell carcinomas can grow inward and spread to the interior of the body. Bowen disease looks like scaly, reddish patches that may be crusted; it may be mistaken for rashes, eczema, fungus, or psoriasis.

Bowen Disease

21

is the most common and easiest-to-treat skin cancer. It spreads slowly, it occurs mostly in adults. These tumors can take on many forms, including a pearly white or waxy bump, often with visible blood vessels, on the ears, neck, or face. Tumors can also appear as a flat, scaly, flesh-colored or brown patch on the back or chest, or more rarely, a white, waxy scar.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

22

Uncommon types of skin cancer include

aposi's sarcoma, mainly seen in people with weakened immune systems; sebaceous gland carcinoma, an aggressive cancer originating in the oil glands in the skin; and Merkel cell carcinoma, which is usually found on sun-exposed areas on the head, neck, arms, and legs but often spreads to other parts of the body.

23

Who Gets Skin Cancer, and Why?

Sun exposure is the biggest cause of skin cancer. But it doesn't explain skin cancers that develop on skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight. Exposure to environmental hazards, radiation treatment, and even heredity may play a role. Although anyone can get skin cancer, the risk is greatest for people who have:

Fair skin or light-colored eyes
An abundance of large and irregularly-shaped moles
A family history of skin cancer
A history of excessive sun exposure or blistering sunburns
Lived at high altitudes or with year-round sunshine
Received radiation treatments

24

Reduce Your Risk of Skin Cancer

Limit your exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays, especially between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun's rays are strongest. While outdoors, liberally apply a broad spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher (don't forget the lips and ears!), wear a hat and sunglasses, and cover up with clothing. And remember, if you notice changes to your skin such as a new growth, a mole changing appearance, or a sore that won't heal, see a doctor right way.