Competence (6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Competence (6) Deck (40)
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1
Q

Competence

A

basic desire for ability, success, and a sense of effectiveness

2
Q

Core motives should elicit goal-oriented bahavior

A

the need for competence serves an evolutionary role in encouraging humans to learn, develop and adapt to their environment

3
Q

Core motives should be adaptive and beneficial

A

Feeling competent is linked to many positive benefits

  1. improved physicial health
  2. better mental health
4
Q

Core motives should be universal

A

Competence is an equality valued in both Western and Easter cultures

5
Q

People differ in their expression and fulfillment of the competence need

A
  1. Belief about where competencies come from (entity vs incremental beliefs)
  2. Perception of competency level (self-efficacy)
  3. Achievement motivation (individual differences in motivation)
  4. Types of goal (learning vs performance goals)
6
Q

entity vs. incremental beliefs

A

Some people think their competencies are something they were born with whereas others think their competencies are something they had to work to achieve

7
Q

individual differences in motivation

A

Some people are just more driven to fulfill their competence need than others

8
Q

Learning vs. Performance goals

A

Some people adopt the goal to improve their competence whereas others adopt the goal to prove their competence

9
Q

Entity theorist

A

Traits and abilities are fixed and are determined by stable factors like aptitude or genetics (intelligence is not changeable)

10
Q

Incremental theorist

A

Traits and abilities are determined by more malleable factors like effort and persistence (intelligence is changeable)

11
Q

Incremental (growth) mindset

A

a. Embrace challenges
b. Persist in the face of setbacks
c. See effort as the path to mastery
d. Adopt learning goals

12
Q

Entity, fixed mindset

A

a. Avoid challenges
b. Give up easily
c. See the effort as fruitless or worse
d. Adopt performance goals

13
Q

Self-efficacy

A
  1. Self-efficacy refers to the perception or belief about our ability to accomplish a particular task
  2. The greater our self-efficacy, the more we believe we have the skills necessary to successfully accomplish something.
14
Q

Forming attribution regarding (Self-efficacy)

-> Success

A

a. Internal attributions increase feelings of pride and accomplishment
b. and stable attributions increase hope that good performances will occur again

15
Q

Forming attribustions regarding (self-efficacy)

-> Failure

A

a. Internal attributions increase feelings of guilt and shame
b. and stable attributions decrease hope

16
Q

Flow state

A

a subjective state in which people feel completely absorbed and focused on an activity

17
Q

Factors that determine flow

A
  1. Skill level

2. Challenge level

18
Q

Self-concept

A

an individual’s collection of self-knowledge

-> serves as a mor source of motivation

19
Q

Goal Fusion

A

The extent that a goal is perceived to be integrated into a person’s self-concept

20
Q

Self-Esteem

A

refers to how favorably or unfavorably people evaluate them-selves
-> It is a major motivator of human behavior

21
Q

Self-evalutaion

A

Whenever people attempt to judge aspects of their self-concept, including their competencies and abilities, they are engaging in self-evaluation

22
Q

Social comparison theory (leon Festinger)

A

Often only know who we are and what we are capable of by comparing ourselves to others

23
Q

Motives to evaluate own competencies

A
  1. Self- Assesment
  2. Self-Verification
  3. Self-Enhancement
  4. Self-Improvement
24
Q

Self-assesment

A

identifying how competent we really are and reducing uncertainty about our skill level

25
Q

Behavioral consequences of Self-assesment

A

Preference for disgnostic tasks (provide accurate info and reduce unercertainty about one’s ability level)

26
Q

Self-Verification

A

The motivation to maintain consistency between self-conceptions and new information

27
Q

Behavioral consequences of Self-Verification

A
  1. people seek out info that verfies their self-view

2. People seek out the company of others who verify their self-view

28
Q

Symbolic Self-completion theory

A

We present ourselves to others in ways that encourage them to treat us in a way that is consistent with our self-views
(Self-verification)

29
Q

Self-enhacement

A

Self-enhancement refers to the motivation to enhance the positive aspects and decrease the negative aspects of our self-concept

30
Q

Behavioral consequences of Self-enhancement

A
  1. Positive feedback
  2. Positive illusions (The better-than-average effect)
  3. Downward social comparison
  4. Self-affirmation theory
31
Q

Self-improvement

A

Self-improvement refers to the motivation to improve one’s traits, abilities, and well-being

32
Q

Self inprovement vs Self-enhancement

A
  1. Self enhacement: feeling like competent
  2. Self-improvement: becoming more competent (first step is to recognize that you are not as good as you want to be -> contradicting self-enhacement)
33
Q

Upward social comparison (Self-improvement)

A

we are inspired to become more competent in a domain and we gain insights into the steps necessary to improve our skills

34
Q

Self-defense strategies

A

allow us to externalize information when it threatens our sense of competency

  1. Self-serving attribution
  2. Self-handicapping
  3. Excuse making
35
Q

Self-serving attributional bias

A

Maintaining overly positive self-evaluations in the face of contradictory evidence through the strategic use of internal and external attributions

36
Q

Self-handicapping

A

The tendency to create an external obstacle that blocks one’s own performance

37
Q

Exuse making

A

Excuse making reflects an attempt to shift attributions for a negative outcome from internal causes to external causes

38
Q

Costs of Self-handicapping

A
  1. people who self-handicap put far less effort, time and practice into preparing a task
  2. they are also evaluated more negatively by others
39
Q

Excuse making vs. Self-handicapping

A
  • > both strategies involve attribution failure to a external source to avoid personal blame
  • > self-handicapping is a behvaioral strategy (before the impeding failure)
  • > excuse making is a cognitive strategy (after the failure)
40
Q

Self-improvement vs. Self-enahcement

A
  • > both are concerned with seeking positive self-views
  • > self- enhacement (feeling competent)
  • > self-improvent (becoming actually more competent) -> here we have to recognize first that we are not as good as we want to be