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Flashcards in phylosophical origins (1) Deck (37)
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1
Q

What makes humans different from other animals?

A

They can anticipate far into the future

2
Q

Lobotomy

A

refers to a neurosurgical procedure that serves connections to the prefrontal cortex
-> ngeative impacts on planning & sticking with goals

3
Q

Goal

A

a cognitive representation of a future outcome that the individual is commited to approach or avoid

4
Q

Frontal lobe

A

home to the hallmark of the human species

-> ability to anticipate the future

5
Q

Motivation (definition Gollwitzer)

A

defined as the underlying process that provides energy & direction for behavior

6
Q

Two aspects make up motivation

A
  1. Energy (inititation, Intensity, Persistance)

2. Direction

7
Q

Three-step process to achieve a goal

A
  1. choose a particular goal
  2. develop plan of action
  3. initiate & persits goal-direction action
8
Q

factors that guarantee life-sucess

A
  1. intelligence (not the focus anymore)
  2. Self-esteem (not the focus anymore)
  3. Self-control (willpower) !
9
Q

Self-control

A

refers to our ability to regulate and change our own thoughts, emotions, and behavior

10
Q

Hedonism

A

the idea that humans are motivated to pursue pleasure and avoid pain

11
Q

Plato’s tripartite theory of motivation

A
  1. Appetite (epithymia)
  2. Rational (logistikon)
  3. Spirited (thymoeides)
    - > three sources of the psyche were in constant conflict with each other
12
Q

Aristotle’s principle of the golden mean

A

all things are best in moderation

13
Q

Aristotle’s four causes

A
  1. material cause
  2. formal cause
  3. efficient cause
  4. final cause
14
Q

material cause (Aristotle)

A

the physicial matierial that makes up the focus target

15
Q

formal cause (Aristotle)

A

the arrangement, shape or appearance of the thing changing

16
Q

efficient cause (Aristotle)

A

something aprt from the facal target that caused it to change

17
Q

final cause (Aristotle)

A

the aim or purpose being served

Why? (most relevant for motivation)

18
Q

Aristotle’s passions

A
  1. somatic (emotions associated with the body)

2. psychic passion (emotions associated with mind, pleasure and pains of the soul)

19
Q

Aristotle’s two types of happiness

A
  1. hedonic happiness

2. Eudaimonic happiness

20
Q

Hedonic happiness

A

the attainment of positive emotions and the absence of negative emotions
-> focus on the outcome (happy or not?)

21
Q

Eudaimonic happiness

A

living a life that has meaning and that allows you to develop into the best version of yourself (focus on the content and the process)

22
Q

The Stoics

A

-> emotions as a destructive motivational force

23
Q

Saint Augustine

A

“the city of god”

-> all emotions are a choice of will

24
Q

Saint Thomas Aquinas

A
  • > Dueling mind and body (emotions are tied to the physicsl body)
  • > two types of passion
25
Q

Aquina’s two types of passions (emotions)

A
  1. concupiscible passions

2. irascible passions

26
Q

Rene Descartes

A

-> mind-body dualism

27
Q

6 primary emotions (Rene Descartes)

A
  1. Joy
  2. Sorrow
  3. Wonder
  4. Love
  5. Hate
  6. Desire
28
Q

Materialism (Thomas Hobbes)

A

all behavior can be explained as a mechanistic response that follow the laws of nature
-> behavior consists of blind, automatic reactions to environmental stimuli

29
Q

Tabula rasa (John Locke)

A

we are born without inherent ideas, urges, or knowledge

-> develop thoughts/desired through experience

30
Q

David Hume

A

motivation included not only a belief component but also an underlying desire
-> direct vs indirect passion

31
Q

direct passions vs. indirect passions (David Hume)

A
  1. arise immediately from feelings of pleasure and pain
  2. also experienced through pleasure and pain
    - > but with an addition of beliefs associated with the object that is producing the pleasure or pain
32
Q

The theory of utilitarinism (Jeremy Bentham)

A

arresting that utility of a particular course of action is determined by how much it

  1. maximizes happiness (pleasure)
  2. reduces suffering (pain)
33
Q

Motivational Qualities (Bentham)

A
  1. Intensity
  2. Duration
  3. certainty
  4. Propinquity
  5. Fecundity
  6. Purity
  7. Extent
34
Q

Felicific Calculus

A

a mathematical algorithm computing the utility of a particular action
(Jeremy Bentham)

35
Q

Immanuel Kant

A

Reason is golden (emotions are illness of the mind)

36
Q

two types of emotion (Immanuel Kant)

A
  1. Affect

2. Passion

37
Q

Arthur Schopenhauer

A

will is the intangible active force of nature, the universe and mankind