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Flashcards in Complications of diabetes Deck (25):
1

What are the risk factor for developing diabetic neuropathy?

Length of disease
T1DM>T2DM
poor glycaemic control
Smoking
Alcohol
High cholesterol/lipids

2

What are the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy?

Numbness
Tingling/burning sensation
Sharp pain/cramps
Sensitivity to touch
Loss of balance/coordination

3

What are the complications of peripheral neuropathy?

Ulceration
infection
charcot foot (midfoot collapse)
Hammer toe
Amputation

4

What happens in focal neuropathy?

sudden weakness in one nerve

5

What can be a sign/symptom of focal neuropathy?

Carpal tunnel
foot drop

6

What happens in proximal neuropathy?

pain in leg/buttocks etc
Muscle weakness in thigh

7

What is amyotrophy?

assymmetrical muscle weakness

8

How does autonomic neuropathy present in sweat glands?

gustatory sweating
inability to control body temperature

9

How does autonomic neuropathy present in GI system?

Gastroparsesis
Constipation/diarrhoea
Dysphagia

10

What is the treatment for gastropaesis?

gastric pacemaker
motility agent

11

What are the symptoms of gastroparesis?

nausea
vomiting after meal
bloating

12

How does gastroparesis affect blood glucose?

Slow absorption
Fluctuating blood glucose

13

How does autonomic neuropathy present in CVS?

postural hypotension
prolonged tachycardia after physiological response

14

What is the name for diabetic nephropathy?

Kimelsteil Wilson Syndrome

15

What happens histologically in Kimelsteil Wilson Syndrome?

Nodular Glomerulosclerosis
Angiopathy of capillaries

16

What are the consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

Hypertension
Reduced GFR if untreated
Accelerated vascular disease

17

What is the target blood pressure in diabetic patients?

130/80

18

What is the first line drug when treating hypertension in diabetics?

ACE inhibitors
work on RAAS

19

What screening tests can be done for diabetic nephropathy?

Urinary ACR (ablumin:creatinine ratio)
Dipstick for proteinuria
U+Es
Annual screening on over 12year olds

20

What are the normal ACR values for a) males b) females?

a) <3.5

21

What needs to be done if microalbuminuria is found?

screen for retinopathy
screen for IHD/PVD
look for other renal causes
screen for hypertension
tighten glycaemic control
moniter serum creatinine

22

What levels of albumina consitiute a) microalbuminuria and b) macroalbuminuria

a) 30-300 mg
b) >300 mg

23

What are the macrovascular complications of diabetes?

Stroke
MI

24

What are the microvascular complications of diabetes?

neuropathy
nephropathy
retinopathy
erectile dysfunction

25

What are the psychological complications of diabetes?

depression
eating disorders
schizophrenia
bi-polar disorder