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Endocrinology > Neck Lumps > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neck Lumps Deck (23):
1

What are the anatomical structures of the anterior triangle?

mandible superiorly
midline medially
SCM on anterior border

2

What are the anatomical structures of the posterior triangle?

posterior border SCM anteriorly
anterior border trapezius laterally
clavical inferiorly

3

What are causes of superficial swellings?

sebaceous cyst
lipoma
neurofibroma

4

What are causes of midline swellings?

thyroid
thyroglossal cyst
dermoid cyst

5

How do you assess a midline lump?

does it move on swallowing? (thyroid)
does it move when sticking tongue out? (thyroglossal cyst)

6

What can cause anterior triangle swellings?

lymph node
branchial cyst
salivary glands
carotid body tumour

7

What can cause posterior triangle swellings?

lymph nodes
cystic hygroma

8

what do you look for on inspection of a neck lump?

deformities
abnormal movements
skin changes (spider nevi, pigmentation, rashes,scars, swellings)

9

What do you palpate for in a neck lump examination?

thyroid
lymph nodes
salivary glands

10

How do you assess a neck lump?

position
size
shape
mobility
consistency
associated lymphadenopathy

11

What is the most common cause of neck lumps?

lymph nodes

12

What can cause cervical lymphadenopathy?

infection
malignancy
haematological (leukeamia, lymphoma)

13

What questions need to be asked in a neck lump Hx?

Systemic symptoms (weight loss, fever, night sweats)
Specific symptoms (cough, dyspnoea, hoarseness)
Background (immigration, travel)
Anatomical location

14

What else should be looked at when assessing neck lumps?

other nodes
primary sites
hepatosplenomegaly (refer to haematology too)

15

What investigations should be done of neck lumps?

CXR
FNA
also get ENT opinion

16

What should you feel for in thyroid lump?

solitary mass
or multinodular

17

Why does a thyroglossal cyst occur?

thyroglossal tract contains lymphatics
lymphatics get infected

18

How and when do thyroglossal cysts occur?

moves on sticking out tongue
teenage years

19

How and when do dermoid cysts present?

soft, nonfluctuant
appear in teenage years

20

How and when does a branchial cyst present?

persisting second branchial arch
arises in upper part of ant. triangle
teenage years

21

What investigation is carried out for branchial cysts? why?

FNA
look for cholesteerol crystals

22

What age do cystic hydromas present?

1st year

23

What symptoms occur in cystic hydroma and why?

pressure symptoms
large lymph filled