Other types of diabetes Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Other types of diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Other types of diabetes Deck (30):
1

What is MODY?

Monogenic diabetes of the young

2

What is the pathogenesis of MODY?

autosomal dominant inheritance
Glucokinase mutation or SUR1 mutation

3

What age does glucokinase mutation MODY present?

presents at birth

4

What is the glycaemic profile of a glucokinase mutation MODY?

stable hyperglycaemia

5

How is glucokinase MODY treated?

dietry controlled

6

What transcription factors are affected in TF MODY mutations?

HNF1 alpha
HNF1 beta
HNF4 alpha

7

What age to transcription factor MODY present?

adolescence

8

What is the glycaemic profile of a transcription factor MODY?

preogressive hyperglycaemia

9

How are transcription factor MODYs treated?

diet
Oral hypoglycaemic agents
insulin

10

what transcription factor MODY can be managed with sulphonylureas?

HNF1 alpha

11

What is the aetiology of MODY?

Young onset
strong FHx
associated renal cysts
GAD negative
C peptide positive

12

What is the cause of neonatal diabetes?

Mutation in K+ channel gene
ATP does not close Katp channel
Hyperpolarisation
no Ca2+ influx
no insulin released

13

When is transient neonatal diabetes a) diagnosed b) resolved?

a) less than 1 week
b) median 12 weeks

14

When is permanent neonatal diabetes diagnosed?

0-6 weeks

15

What is the treatment for neonatal diabetes?

insulin in first 3 months
may need lifelong treatment

16

What are the genetic causes of Type 3 diabetes?

Cystic fibrosis
Myotonic dystrophy
Turner's syndrome

17

What are the endocrine causes of Type 3 diabetes?

Cushing's
Acromegaly
Phaeochromocytoma
Glucagonoma

18

What are the drug induced causes of Type 3 diabetes?

Glucocorticoids
Diuretics
Beta blockers

19

What are the oancreatic causes of type 3 diabetes?

chronic/recurrant pancreatitis
Haemochromatosis
Cystic fibrosis

20

What is type 4 diabetes and how is it characterised?

Gestational diabetes
Any degree of glucose intolerance in pregnancy

21

What happens in diabetes insipidus?

ADH disturbances
Not registered in kidney
Higher volume, less concentrated urine
Symptoms of thirst

22

What happens in diabetes insipidus?

ADH disturbances in ant pit
Not registered in kidney
Higher volume, less concentrated urine
Symptoms of thirst

23

How does gestational diabetes occur?

Progesterones and hPL cause insulin resistance
if already predisposed rise in blood glucose

24

What are the foetal complications of gestatoinal diabetes?

congenital malformation
prematurity
intrauterine growth retardation
macrosomia (>90th centile size)
polyhydramnios
stillbirth

25

What are the complications of gestational diabetes in neonates?

respiratory distress
hypo/hyperglycaemia

26

How is gestational diabetes managed?

pre pregnancy counselling
folic acid 5mg
change from tablets to insulin
regular eye checks
Avoid ACEI (use labetalol, nifedipine, methy dopa)

27

how do you ensure resolution of gestational diabetes?

6 weeks post natal GTT

28

What %age of gestational diabetics go on to have in next 10 years
a)type 1
b)type 2?

a)

29

How do you prevent post gestational diabetes from becoming permenant?

low weight
healthy diet
aerobic exercise
annual fasting glucose

30

When does gestational diabetes present?

3rd trimester