Flashcards in Components of Blood Deck (59):
Components of Blood
Plasma, Leukocytes and Platelets, & Packed RBC
Non-cellular fluid portion of blood. Transport system. Represents approximately 1/3 of extraceullular fluid.
Stem cell that all other cells evolve from
Erythrocytes are regulated by
Erythropoietin is released by the renal tubules in response to
hypoxia or decreased RBC
Erythrocytes are reliant on...
Iron, B12, folic acid, B6 and thyroid hormone
The earliest identifiable form of a RBC. Found in the bone marrow. Eventually produces 8 mature RBC
RBCs contain a nucleus during the erythroblast phases, the nucleus is lost just before being released into circulation.
Nucleated RBC in circulation is a bad sign and indicative of...
Person bleeding to death or having cancer (usually leukemia)
Immature RBC found in circulating blood. Larger than mature RBC and often contain fragments of ribosomes.
Number of _______ circulating should be equal to the number of ______ being removed from circulation.
(Reticulocytes are a good indicator of bone marrow production)
Reticulocytes have a life span of about ______ days and are typically removed by ______
1) 120 days
2) Macrophages in the spleen
Mature, circulating RBC that are bi-concave. These transport O2 from the lungs to the tissues of the body and transport CO2 from the tissues to the lung.
Binding protein for O2 and CO2
The ease with which hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues is controlled by
Left shift on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve indicates
An increased hemoglobin affinity to oxygen. It is easier to load oxygen but difficult to unload it.
A right shift on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve indicates
Shows a decreased hemoglobin affinity to oxygen. It is difficult to load the oxygen but easier to unload
3 types of granulocytes
1) Neutrophil 2)eosiniophils 3)basophils
Contain granules and respond to foreign bodies and bacteria. Account for most of the WBC in circulation
When a patient is neutropenic it is because they have fewer than ___________. You would want to put them on?
1) 500 neutrophils
2) antibiotics prophylactically
Attack protozoa and helminths
Become mast cells. Play a role in hypersensitive reactions (allergies, anaphylaxis)
Basophils say we have a problem, and _____ come in and fix it
What distinguishes neutrophils in a blood smear?
What distinguishes eosinophils in a blood smear?
(Stain they use to dye is called eosin)
What distinguishes basophils in a blood smear?
(They are blue..called basophil because they take up basic dye)
Play a role in inflammation and initiating immune response
What distinguishes monocyte in a blood smear?
Has a big nucleus that resembles an old school phone or kidney bean
Unlike neutrophils, these can remain viable for many years. Function as part of the immune system.
(Neutrophils live for 5.5 days, lymphocytes can live for 20 years)
Two types of lymphocytes. Differentiation occurs where?
B lymphocytes (bone marrow)
T lymphocytes (thymus)
1) Synthesize antibodies and provide humoral immunity
2) Destroy foreign cells and provide cell mediated immunity
1) B lymphocytes
2) T lymphocytes
What distinguishes lymphocytes in a blood smear?
HUGE nucleus. This nucleus is usually the size of RBC.
If lymphocyte and RBC are not the same size, the malformation is a result of which cell?
Plays a role in hemostasis, inflammation, and wound healing
Found within each globin. Iron containing molecule which is capable of reversibly binding an O2 molecule
Ferritin. Stored mostly in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
The percentage of binding sites occupied by iron molecules
Transferring saturation (usually around 33%)
Indirect measure of transferrin
Intrinsic factor required for absorption. A deficiency would result in a reduction of RBC production. If severe enough deficiency can have neurologic dysfunction.
Total number of RBC in a cubic millimeter of blood
Provides an indication of the O2 transport capacity of the blood.
Hemoglobin count (Hgb)
Normal range for Hgb
Females: 12.3-15.3 g/dL
Males: 14-17.5 g/dL
Packed cell volume, percentage volume of blood that is made up of erythrocytes. Usually 3x volume of Hgb
Hematocrit count (Hct)
Normal range for Hct
**Men have more because women lose blood every month through period
Average size of RBC. Useful in diagnosis of anemia.
Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV)
Normal MCV range
Number of leukocytes in a cubic millimeter of blood
Normal WBC values
4.4-11 K per microliter
Normal platelet count
150-450 K per microliter
Rate at which erythrocytes settle from the blood
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. High rate indicative of various conditions including inflammation, infection, and pregnancy. Low rate indicative of various conditions including CHF and sickle cell anemia.
Wright stained blood smear
Allows for manual evaluation of blood. Looks at WBC differential and RBC morphology.
If a lot of neutrophils are present, referred to as
Variation in RBC size
Variation in RBC shape
# elevated in anemia due to blood loss and/or hemolysis. If reduced in anemia, likely problem with RBC production (i.e bone marrow)
Anemia plus RPI >2 suggests...
hemolysis or acute hemorrhage
Anemia plus RPI <1 consistent with decreased....
Indications for RBC transfusion
Symptomatic deficit in oxygen carrying capacity
1) Acute blood loss
2) chronic anemia --packed red blood cells