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Flashcards in Components of Blood Deck (59):
1

Components of Blood

Plasma, Leukocytes and Platelets, & Packed RBC

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Non-cellular fluid portion of blood. Transport system. Represents approximately 1/3 of extraceullular fluid.

Plasma

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Stem cell that all other cells evolve from

Hemocytoblast

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Erythrocytes are regulated by

Erythropoietin

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Erythropoietin is released by the renal tubules in response to

hypoxia or decreased RBC

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Erythrocytes are reliant on...

Iron, B12, folic acid, B6 and thyroid hormone

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The earliest identifiable form of a RBC. Found in the bone marrow. Eventually produces 8 mature RBC

Proerythroblast

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RBCs contain a nucleus during the erythroblast phases, the nucleus is lost just before being released into circulation.

Nucleated RBC

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Nucleated RBC in circulation is a bad sign and indicative of...

Person bleeding to death or having cancer (usually leukemia)

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Immature RBC found in circulating blood. Larger than mature RBC and often contain fragments of ribosomes.

Reticulocytes

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Number of _______ circulating should be equal to the number of ______ being removed from circulation.

1) Reticulocytes
2) RBC
(Reticulocytes are a good indicator of bone marrow production)

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Reticulocytes have a life span of about ______ days and are typically removed by ______

1) 120 days
2) Macrophages in the spleen

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Mature, circulating RBC that are bi-concave. These transport O2 from the lungs to the tissues of the body and transport CO2 from the tissues to the lung.

Erythrocytes

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Binding protein for O2 and CO2

Hemaglobin

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The ease with which hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues is controlled by

2,3-DPG

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Left shift on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve indicates

An increased hemoglobin affinity to oxygen. It is easier to load oxygen but difficult to unload it.

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A right shift on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve indicates

Shows a decreased hemoglobin affinity to oxygen. It is difficult to load the oxygen but easier to unload

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3 types of granulocytes

1) Neutrophil 2)eosiniophils 3)basophils

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Contain granules and respond to foreign bodies and bacteria. Account for most of the WBC in circulation

Neutrophils

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When a patient is neutropenic it is because they have fewer than ___________. You would want to put them on?

1) 500 neutrophils
2) antibiotics prophylactically

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Attack protozoa and helminths

Eosinophils

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Become mast cells. Play a role in hypersensitive reactions (allergies, anaphylaxis)

Basophils

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Basophils say we have a problem, and _____ come in and fix it

Lymphocytes

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What distinguishes neutrophils in a blood smear?

Segmented nucleus

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What distinguishes eosinophils in a blood smear?

Bright orange
(Stain they use to dye is called eosin)

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What distinguishes basophils in a blood smear?

Granules
(They are blue..called basophil because they take up basic dye)

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Play a role in inflammation and initiating immune response

Monocytes

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What distinguishes monocyte in a blood smear?

Has a big nucleus that resembles an old school phone or kidney bean

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Unlike neutrophils, these can remain viable for many years. Function as part of the immune system.

Lymphocytes
(Neutrophils live for 5.5 days, lymphocytes can live for 20 years)

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Two types of lymphocytes. Differentiation occurs where?

B lymphocytes (bone marrow)
T lymphocytes (thymus)

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1) Synthesize antibodies and provide humoral immunity
VS.
2) Destroy foreign cells and provide cell mediated immunity

1) B lymphocytes
2) T lymphocytes

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What distinguishes lymphocytes in a blood smear?

HUGE nucleus. This nucleus is usually the size of RBC.

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If lymphocyte and RBC are not the same size, the malformation is a result of which cell?

RBC

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Plays a role in hemostasis, inflammation, and wound healing

Platelets

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Found within each globin. Iron containing molecule which is capable of reversibly binding an O2 molecule

Heme

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Iron reserve

Ferritin. Stored mostly in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow

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The percentage of binding sites occupied by iron molecules

Transferring saturation (usually around 33%)

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Indirect measure of transferrin

TIBC

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Intrinsic factor required for absorption. A deficiency would result in a reduction of RBC production. If severe enough deficiency can have neurologic dysfunction.

B12

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Total number of RBC in a cubic millimeter of blood

RBC count

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Provides an indication of the O2 transport capacity of the blood.

Hemoglobin count (Hgb)

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Normal range for Hgb

Females: 12.3-15.3 g/dL
Males: 14-17.5 g/dL

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Packed cell volume, percentage volume of blood that is made up of erythrocytes. Usually 3x volume of Hgb

Hematocrit count (Hct)

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Normal range for Hct

Females: 36-45%
Males: 42-50%

**Men have more because women lose blood every month through period

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Average size of RBC. Useful in diagnosis of anemia.

Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV)

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Normal MCV range

80-100 fL

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Number of leukocytes in a cubic millimeter of blood

WBC count

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Normal WBC values

4.4-11 K per microliter

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Normal platelet count

150-450 K per microliter

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Rate at which erythrocytes settle from the blood

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. High rate indicative of various conditions including inflammation, infection, and pregnancy. Low rate indicative of various conditions including CHF and sickle cell anemia.

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Wright stained blood smear

Allows for manual evaluation of blood. Looks at WBC differential and RBC morphology.

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If a lot of neutrophils are present, referred to as

"left shift"

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Variation in RBC size

anisocytosis

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Variation in RBC shape

Poikilocytosis

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# elevated in anemia due to blood loss and/or hemolysis. If reduced in anemia, likely problem with RBC production (i.e bone marrow)

Reticulocyte count

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Anemia plus RPI >2 suggests...

hemolysis or acute hemorrhage

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Anemia plus RPI <1 consistent with decreased....

RBC production

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Indications for RBC transfusion

Symptomatic deficit in oxygen carrying capacity
1) Acute blood loss
2) chronic anemia --packed red blood cells

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When patient's blood is mixed with donor blood (in lab) to evaluate for lysis and clotting rxns

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