Conditions of the Cardiovascular System P.P. (Week3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Conditions of the Cardiovascular System P.P. (Week3) Deck (69)
1

MI

gross necrosis of the myocardium due to interruption of the blood supply to the area

2

If the blockage is below 40% patient usually does not know they have __________

artherosclerosis

3

Client will have 50% or more blockage when symptoms begin to show in _______

artherosclerosis

4

Signs and symptoms of MI ( 6)

1. Chest pain/pressure
2. shortness of breath
3. nausea/vomiting
4. weakness
5. diaphoresis/sweating
6. sudden death

5

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

6

SOB is usually what a person experiences after ____ ____

physical activity

7

MI causes ____ due to pressure on the chest.

dyspnea

8

If the pressure of what is thought to be an MI goes away it is most likely ______

angina

9

Diagnosing an MI (3)

1. blood work
2. EKG
3. Chest xray

10

Cardiac markers such as CK-MB and Troponins are signs of

MI

11

Troponins are

released in the blood system when the heart muscle dies.

12

EKG shows an elevation in the ___

ST interval

13

Causes of an MI (6)

1. Thrombus (clot) formation at the site, or that travels to (embolism) a narrowed vessel
2. Atherosclerosis/plaque formation
3. vaspospasm
4. hypotension
5. anemia
6. cocaine use

14

embolism

a clot that travels

15

Thrombus

clot that is caught in a narrow vessel

16

A thrombus that gets caught in a vessel with atherosclerosis causes an

MI

17

Vasospasm

vessels constrict distally and peripherally to protect the body (keep warm)

18

When a vasospasm occurs to a main artery it can mimic a

MI

19

As angina worsens the heart will grow new vessels around the partially blocked vessels. This is called

collateral circulation

20

Atherosclerosis is

plaque formation in the coronary artery blocking blood flow and oxygen to the heart

21

What is the most common type of HD?

CHD

22

CHD can lead to

MI, angina and other complications

23

Decline in HD deaths are due to (2)

1. people are reducing their own risk factors
2. New medications and procedures are preventing HD

24

MAJOR Risk factor of CAD (4)

1. smoking
2. high cholesterol/lipids
3. hypertension/ high BP
4. Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

25

All MAJOR CAD risk factors are _________

modifiable

26

High blood pressure is caused by ______

inflammation in the coronary arteries

27

High blood pressure can cause a ___

stroke

28

Exercise increases ___

HDL

29

Medication and diet will decrease ____

HBP

30

Avoid DM by (2)

1. Dieting
2. Exercising

31

Minor Risk Factors for CAD (8)

1. sedentary life style
2. family hx
3. aging process
4. abdominal obesity
5. psychosocial factors - high stress
6. consumption of too few fruits/vegetables
7. drinking too much alcohol
8. high inflammation in the body (RA)

32

Visceral fat is

abdominal obesity

33

#1 way to prevent CAD

risk factor reduction:
quit smoking
check for hypertension and lose weight
check for diabetes and lose weight
check for high cholesterol lose weight
exercise
take medication as directed

34

"MOAN" the immediate treatment for MI stands for

Morphine - for pain/anxiety relief
Oxygen - To help heart work better
Aspirin - to "thin" the blood for better circulation
Nitroglycerin - to vasodilate blood vessels to improve circulation

35

Immediate tx in ER for CAD

1. Iv fluids
2. oxygen
3. EKG
4. Blood tests
5. Possible t-PA

36

What is t-PA?

Clot-buster - dissolves clot to avoid more clots/blockages

37

Why shouldn't a person that has had CPR be administered t-PA?

t-PA is a blood thinner that will loosen up all blood from bruising and the patient can bleed out

38

Long term medications for tx of CAD(6)

REMEMBER THIS LIST!!!! SIDE-EFFECTS WILL BE GONE OVER IN ANOTHER PRESENTATION

Asprin, plavix
Beta blockers
Calcium channel blockers
ACE-inhibitors
Nitroglycerin
Statins

39

Nitroglycerin is sent home with patients if

They still have small blockages elsewhere

40

percutaneous

through the skin

41

transluminal

across the lumen

42

Revascularization Techniques for CAD (2)

1. PTCA with stenting
2. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

43

What is the procedure for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with stenting?

A catheter pushes the plaque up against the walls of the artery and then a stent is placed to hold the vessels open

44

What happens if a stent can not be placed due to an area of blockage?

A CABG will be performed

45

What is the procedure for a CABG?

A vein is removed from another part of the body,then
flipped upside down so the valves stay open, and secured onto the heart bypassing blood flow around the site of the blockage.

46

Which veins can be used for a CABG? (3)

1. Saphenous
2. Internal mammary
3. radial artery

47

Complications of an MI include (5)

1. arrhythmias
2. continued angina/chest pain
3. pericarditis
4. heart failure (CHF)
5. DVT

48

arrythmias

abnormal, irregular hear rhythm

49

pericarditis

inflammation around the heart

50

CHF

decreased cardiac output, reduced/low ejection fraction

51

DVT stands for

deep vein thrombosis

52

A DVT is

blood clot in leg

53

What can happen if a DVT travels?

It can end up in the lungs causing a pulmonary embolus

54

Symptoms of Pulmonary embolus (2)

Chest pain
SOB

55

3 types of CHF

1. left-sided systolic HF
2. right-sided diastolic HF
3. Right-sided HF

56

Symptoms of Class I (Mild) HF

No limitation of physical activity; does not cause undue fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea.

57

Symptoms of Class II (Mild) HF

Slight limitation of physical activity; comfortable at rest but ordinary activity causes fatigue, palpitation,, or dyspnea

58

Symptoms of Class III (Moderate) HF

Marked limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but less than ordinary activity causes fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea

59

Symptoms of Class IV (Severe) HF

Unable to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms of cardiac insufficiency at rest. If any physical activity is undertaken, discomfort is increased.

60

Risk factors of DVT(4)

1. Long travel
2. cancer patients
3. use of estrogen
4. Other

61

Prevention of DVT

1. early ambulation
2. "foot board" - exercises while still in bed
3. SCD - sequential compression devices
4. Medications - lovenox

62

Biggest risk of a DVT is if a

clot travels to the lungs and causes a deadly PE

63

Heprin vs Coumadin

Heprin is short acting
Coumadin is long acting

64

Cardiac rehab will focus on (3)

1. Safe EXERCISE with telemetry monitoring
2. Proper EDUCATION to reduce cardiac risk
3. DIETARY EDUCATION to help reduce cholesterol and BP (sodium) in diet via demos, classes

65

Exercise helps create

new vessels

66

Which exercises are used in cardiac rehab? (3)

1. Stretching
2. Aerobic - creates new vessles
3. Strength and balance

67

Strength and balance exercise will decrease the risk of

falls

68

Cardiac diet consists of eating(3)

1. low carbs
2. lean fish, meat, poultry = no skin, no fat
3. tons of fruits and vegetables

69

Cardiac catheterization

is a procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. During cardiac catheterization, a long thin tube called a catheter is inserted in an artery or vein in your groin, neck or arm and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart.