Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

PT 506 Kinesio / Biomechanics > Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (185):
0

we always blank in the direciton of the intended motion

roll

1

concave moving on convex then the roll and glide are in blank direction

the same

2

convex moving on concave then roll and glide are in blank direction

opposite

3

cartilage that wears away with osteoarthritis

hyaline

4

this cartilage is in tmj and has a healing property

fibrocartilage

5

tendons and ligaments are made by blank

dense regular ct

6

these resist shear forces

bursa

7

shear means blank

friction

8

ground substance of ct

interfibrillar

9

fibrous components of ct

fibrillar

10

basic cell of most ct

fibroblast

11

fibroblasts may become blank

chondroblast, osteoblast, tenoblast

12

cells may blank depending on environment and stimulus

de-differentiation

13

two hydrated proteins in interfibrillar extracellular matrix

proteoglycans, glycoproteins

14

proportion of pgs in extracellular matrix effects blank

hydration

15

gags are blank charged such that a concentration of negatively charged pgs creates a swelling pressure = water flows into the extraceullar matrix

negatively

16

blank fibers resist and contain swelling by resisting compressive forces

collagen

17

tissues subjected to high compression forces have a blank pg content and those that resist tensile loads have a blank content

high, low

18

pgs look like chemistry blank

bottle brushes

19

gags look like blank

bristles of bottle brush

20

2 major fibrillar components

collagen, elastin

21

most abundant protein in the body

collagen

22

type of cartilage predominantly in tendons, menisci, and jiont capsules

type 1

23

type of cartilage predominatly in hyaline articular cartilage and nucleus pulposus of disk

type 2

24

yellow fibrous tissue that has properties allowing the fibers to deform under force and return to original state

elastin

25

elastin is blank in proportion to collagen in ct

smaller

26

dense connective tissue in tendon and ligament

parallel

27

humans and blank models have similar tendons and ligaments

mammallian

28

these synthesize and secrete procollagen which is cleaved extracellularly to produce type 1 collagen

fibroblasts

29

each polypeptide chain is coiled in a blank helix in tendons and ligaments

left handed

30

these are formed by gags between collagen molecules providing strength to fibrils

cross links

31

cross links can be destroyed by blank

sprains, strains, tears

32

there is more elastin in a blank than blank

ligament, tendon

33

elastin makes up about blank percent of fibers in a ligament

1

34

tissues increase their structural or functional capability in response to overloading

overload

35

specific stimulus for adaptation elicits specific structural and functional changes in specific elements of tissues

specificity

36

discontinuing training stimulus will result in de-training and the adaptive changes regress

reversibility

37

what is said

specific adaptations to induce demand

38

property of a material or structure to return to its original form following removal of deforming load

elasticity

39

property of a material to deform permanently when its loaded beyond its plastic range

plasticity

40

property of a material to resist loads that produce shear, controls fluid rate of flow

fluid property (viscosity)

41

a slower deformation / rate of flow is caused by a blank viscosity

high

42

elastic materials return to normal form/shape following removal of a deforming load

solid property

43

energy is blank during loading and blank completely during unloading

stored, released

44

a combination of viscosity and elasticity that is sensitive to rate of loading or deformation

visco-elastic

45

load is suddenly applied then held constant over time

CREEP

46

during creep, continued blank occurs over time even though load is held constant

deformation

47

deformation is held constant and force required to maintain deformation decreases over time

stress relaxation

48

loading that causes a shift of the curve to the right because the shift blank in magnitude with each repetition

decreases

49

increased blank helps with elongation of tissue

heat

50

area under curve... the energy of deformation - energy loss in form of heat

hysteresis

51

increased stiffness with increased strain rate (speed), stress relaxation and creep deformation as per other tissues

viscoelastic behavior

52

tendon loading differs from other connective tissue because it attaches to blank

skeletal muscles

53

the weak point where most muscle strains occur is at the blank

myotendinous junction

54

though muscle forces may be very high, tendon tensile strength tends to be blank that of its muscle

twice

55

blank ruptures are more common than blank ruptures

muscle, tendon

56

outer part of tendon

paratenon

57

synovial tissue only in high friction locations of tendons

epitenon

58

continuous with perimysium and periosteum

endotenon

59

if muscle tissue is stiff then... and more between age 35 and 55... rapid eccentric loading can cause

rupture

60

cellular reaction of injury

inflammation

61

collagen synthesis of injury

proliferation

62

remodeling after injury

maturation

63

immobilization weakens blank complex after just 8 weeks in ACL

bone-lig-bone

64

ultimate load is increased with blank mobilization

immediate

65

early mobilization in tendon reduces blank

adhesions

66

this closure can cause failure at epiphysis

pre epiphyseal

67

this type of closure can cause failure at myotendinous junction

post epiphyseal

68

four stimuli for stretching connective tissues

optimal intensity, duration, temperature, timing, frequency

69

takes about blank minutes to stretch dense connective tissue

5

70

shaking hand when hitting with a hammer causes mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors to fire which inhibit blank

nociceptors

71

blank is the most important factor for stretching parameters

intensity (max painfree)

72

stretching should be done after blank

warming up

73

cool down after stretching should be in blank position

lengthened

74

continuum of loading slide is important

okay

75

if strength or endurance training is painful then blank should be used

tendon training (aarom)

76

an avascular, aneural, tissue

hyaline cartilage

77

hyaline cartilage has a low blank

metabolic rate

78

four zones of cartilage

superficial tangential, middle, deep, calcified cartilage

79

tide mark is the spot between blank and blank cartilage

uncalcified, calcified

80

make and secrete matrix, inhibiting cell-cell contact

chondrocytes

81

matrix transmits blank signals to cell membranes

mechanical

82

chondrocytes may act as electromechanical blank in that the mechanical stress elicits a response to synthetic activity

transducers

83

most important articular cartilage material property as it relates to mechanical behavior

fluid component

84

articular cartilage is a blank tissue

hydraulic

85

water content blank and pg content blank as we go deeper in articular cartilage tissue

decreases, increases

86

part of ac that is porous, permeable matrix primarily of type 2 collagen and pg

solid component

87

articular cartilage has an extremely low blank

permeability coefficient

88

heterogenous connective tissue has solid and semi solid materials mixed together in blank tissue

anisotropic

89

rate of creep is an indicator of tissue blank

permeability

90

small pores result in blank permeability and high blank to flow

low, friction

91

this further reduces pore size

compression

92

first step out of bed in the morning, there is rapid blank of fluid from articular surface

exudation

93

compressive load is resisted by creep of blank, but when creep cannot resist compression anymore... there may be blank

articular cartilage, arthritis

94

articular cartilage response to stress relaxation... stress is blank until a given blank is reached and then strain is maintined

increased, deformation

95

two types of articular cartilage lubrication systems

boundary, fluid

96

ac lube system where each load bearing surface is coated with lubricin so two surfaces do not touch each other

boundary

97

ac lubrication system where a film of fluid interposed between two joint surfaces

fluid

98

lubricin prevents blank contact

bone-bone

99

boundary lubrication is most important at blank loads and blank speeds and blank duration

low, low, long

100

four types of ac lubrication fluids

hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, squeeze film, elastohydrodynamic

101

fluid lubrication that is film of lube that is maintained under pressure of cartilage with pressure and returns with unloading and is most effective under high loads

hydrostatic

102

fluid lubrication that is a wedge of fluid created when non opposing surfaces slide on one another - lifting pressure occurs in wedge of fluid and increased viscosity keeps surfaces apart

hydrodynamic

103

ac lube system where pressure created in fluid film by surfaces moving that are perpendicular to one another...

squeeze film

104

viscosity blank if pressure increases

increases

105

squeeze film lube system is most beneficial for blank loads for a blank duration

high, short

106

ac lube system where fluid film is maintained at uniform thickness by elastic deformation of articular surfaces

elastohydrodynamic

107

three aberrant lube systems

adhesive, abrasive, fatigue

108

aberrant lube system that is osteochondritis dessicans which is complete or incomplete separation of a portion of cartilage and bone

adhesive wear

109

aberrant lube system that is joint mouse irritation

abrasive wear

110

aberrant lube system with a PG washout, aging, DJD

fatigue wear

111

squeeze film predominates this part of gait

heel contact

112

during gait, combo of boundary and fluid film

stance phase

113

during gait, hydrodynamic predominates this part

swing

114

caused by prolonged immobilization, some ant inflammatory drugs, trauma, infection, and aging

loss of pg matrix

115

loss of pg matrix may be blank depending on degree and duration

reversible

116

more PGs help with resisting blank

compression

117

early stages of fraying of collagen bundles in superficial layer causes development of blank

osteoarthritis

118

once fraying has begun in osteoarthritis it progresses blank

quickly

119

degeneration appears to begin in layers blank and blank in chondromalacia

3,4

120

early visualization of chondromalacia is blank

difficult

121

these can be used to increase density of cartilage

allograft

122

cartilage grows blank and blank in areas of blank compared to blank

faster, thicker, wb, nwb

123

blank loading is detrimental while blank loading may help healing

constant, intermittent

124

when facilitating articular cartilage growth intensity should be guided by blank and blank but blank may be excessive

pain, edema/effusion, full body weight

125

duration/frequency of building ac is blank

100s-1000s of reps

126

mode to facilitate ac growth is to attempt to mimic blank loading characteristics

function

127

bone harbors blank tissue for prodcution of blood cells

hemopoietic

128

bone is highly blank

vascular/innervated

129

bone is a blank ct

dynamic

130

bone is a good mechanical lever because it is mostly blank matter

inorganic

131

extracellular organic matter that resists stretching and has little extensibility

type 1 collagen

132

type 1 collagen accounts for blank percent of ecm and blank of dry weight

90, 25-30 percent

133

extracellular organic matter that is the cementing substance between osteons in haversian system

gags

134

glycoproteins containing glutamic acid causes gags to bind avidly to blank

calcium

135

two parts of inorganic matter of bone

calcium, phosphorus

136

decalcified bone retains shape but is as blank as blank

flexible, tendon

137

removing organic matter of bone makes it blank

brittle

138

mature bone cells

osteocyte

139

young bone cells

osteoblasts

140

phagocytic bone cells

osteoclasts

141

wolff's law says that if effective applied load decreases, blank also decreases

bone deposition

142

following 8 weeks of immobilization you may see a blank fold decrease in load to failure

3

143

these can slow the healing process after fracture because it does the work for the bone

plates/screws

144

blank bone is stiffer than blank bone

cortical, cancellous

145

cortical bone can withstand greater blank but less blank than cancellous bone

stress, strain

146

cancellous bones can sustain strains of blank

75%

147

cortical bone can sustain strains of blank

2%

148

constant compression may hinder blank

growth

149

unequal loading produces blank deformities

valgus, varus

150

piezo electric effect causes blank charge on side of bone being compressed

negative

151

piezo electric effect causes a blank charge on the tension side of bone

positive

152

osteoblasts tend to migrate toward blank electrode

negative

153

osteoclasts tend to migrate toward blank electrode

positive

154

the blank resists bowing of femur

it band

155

trochanters are created by blank

muscle tension

156

debonding of osteons causes a blank

fracture

157

constant compressive loading produces increase in blank diameter and increase in blank porosity

endosteal, intracortical

158

intermittent loading produced increased blank

bone mass

159

spiral fractures are common with closed chained blank

pivots

160

epiphyseal plate is most sensitive to blank forces

torsion

161

under blank load, newly formed bone will grow away from epiphysis in a spiral fashion

torsional

162

to facilitate bone growth, loading should be within tissue blank

structural tolerance

163

type 1 muscle fiber

slow twitch oxidative

164

type 2 a muscle fibers

fast twitch oxidative glycolytic

165

type 2b muscle fibers

fast twitch glycolytic

166

fascia surrounding whole muscle

epimysium

167

fascia surrounding fascicles

perimysium

168

fascia surrounding individual muscle cells

endomysium

169

contractile elements of muscle

contractile proteins

170

parallel elastic elements of muscle

peri, epi, and endomysium

171

series elastic elements of muscle

tendon

172

with an isometric contraction, the contractile element blank and the series elastic element blanks

shortens, lengthens

173

blank lengthens during isometric contraction but blank shortens

tendon, actin/myosin

174

if the load is too big, the blank elements kick in during eccentric load

parallel elastic

175

agonist muscle is too short to produce effective tension and thus no further ROM can be actively achieved

active insufficiency

176

antagonist muscle is on stretch and is too short (too far elongated) to allow further passive ROM

passive insufficiency

177

passive and active insufficiencies are typically blank or blank articulate muscles

bi, multi

178

muscle force varies with blank area of the muscle

cross sectional

179

blank arrangement is a key issue in determining total cross sectional area

fiber

180

cross sectional area increases years blank

0-20s

181

loss of strength is more in blank than blank as we age

legs, arms

182

as shortening speed of muscle decreases, blank increases

tension

183

isometric exercise speed is blank, therefore, there is greater tension generated compared to blank

zero, concentrics

184

for eccentrics, increased speed of lengthening, increased blank

tension