Flashcards in Controversy Historians and Their Points Of View Deck (13)
Robert Gellately - Collaboration (4)
-Argued Regime was a 'Consensus Dictatorship'
-Terror/Gestapo relied heavily on collaboration from people who supported the regime
-e.g Only 21 officers for the whole region of Wurzberg (1,000,000 people)
-The Support of ordinary Germans suggests that many believed in Nazi ideas and supported the Regime "Self- Surveillance"
Martin Broszat - Popularity (3)
- Disputes argument that there was a lack of opposition within regime
- There was resistance from many Germans. E.g Some civil servants and some Generals who tried to stop Nazi Control of the Military
-Calls the idea of non-conformity and civil disobedience 'Resistenz'. Develops this argument in the 1970's
Tim Mason - Popularity (2)
- There was a lot of working class discontent with the regime about declining living standards
- This pushed Hitler into war earlier than he had planned
Karl Dietrich Bracher/ Richard J Evans - Popularity (2)
- Regimes terror apparatus made it impossible for Germans to express their dissatisfaction
- Therefore the lack of opposition was not necessarily an indication of consent
Richard J Evans - Popularity (4)
- Specialisation of terror due to presence of SS, SA, Gestapo, SD (Intelligence branch of SS) and the Camps meant that the terror apparatus was very efficient
- Did not require lots of personnel due to huge informant network
- People denounced because they were scared of being denounced themselves
-all aspects of what Evans calls "The Social Milieu" - all forms of social interaction - were infiltrated by the Nazis and carried out surveillance on the population
Structuralist school of thought + Historian who agrees with this
Nazi Germany was a coalition of several 'power blocs' that fought each other to gain control. E.g the Army, NSADP, big businesses, the Elites, the State beaucracy etc
Ian Kershaw, Martin Broszat
Intentionalist school of thought
Hitler had goals and aims that he set out to achieve from the beginning, as some are outlined in Mein Kempf. E.g he intended from the start to eliminate the Jews.
Functionalist School of thought
Hitler was influenced by those around him. Significant Nazi Policy arose as a result of Cumulative Radicalisation
by the other Nazi leaders.
Burleigh uses the term 'Politcal Religion' to highlight the way in which the Nazi regime became a kind of religious cult and the deification of Hitler.
Klaus-Michael Mallman and Gerhard Paul
Coined the term 'loyal reluctance' to counter Broszat's argument of 'resistenz'. Mallman and Paul argue that acts of non-conformity were not acts of direct opposition to the regime but rather just symbolised indifference towards politics in general.
Develops idea of Cumulative Radicalisation based on the chaotic state.
Eberhard Jackel and Klaus Hildebrand
That the Nazi state could be described as 'Alleinherrschaft' (solo rule) and that therefore the Nazi state was a monocratic state.