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Flashcards in COPD Q3 Deck (63):
1

In obstructive pulmonary dx what (2) factors increase

Total Lung Capacity
Residual Vol

(all else decreases)

2

In restrictive pulmonary dx what factor increases

FEV 1sec/ FVC

3

during emphysema there is a permanent _____ of the airspaces ____

permanent enlargement

airspaces distal to teh terminal non-respiratory bronchioles

4

Incidence of Emphysema

age 50

5

pink puffers are ___cc

emphysema

6

(2) predisposing factos of emphysema

smoking
alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

7

The AP diameter is increased in ___ cc

emphysema

8

is emphysema alkalosis or acidosis

alkalosis

9

what are the conditions that have to be seen to diagnosis chronic bronchitis

excessive sputum production for at least three mo. for two consecutive yrs

10

incidence of chronic bronchitis

after age 32

11

blue bloaters

chronic bronchitis

12

(2) predisposing factors

smoking
air pollution

13

breath sounds of chronic bronchitis

wheeze
rhonci

14

(3) cc that are a part of COPD

chronic bronchitis
emphysema
Chronic bronchial asthma

15

chronic bronchitis leads to:
Mucous gland ____
excess ____ production
______ cell hyperplasia
Incr _____ Ration
____ atelectasis

hyperplasia
excess mucous
goblet cell hyperplsia
increase reid index
patchy atelectasis

16

_____: ratio of the thickness of the submucosal gland layer to the bronchial wall

increase reid Index

(bronchitis)

17

***Bronchitis can be a predisposing factor to ___ cc

cancer

squamous metaplasia

18

*** what is the most common type of emphysema

centrilobular emphysema

19

WHat structures does the centrilobular emphysema affect?****

proximal respiratory bronchiole
- spares the alveolar duct and alveoli

( the "central part"

20

____ emphysea is common in coal workers pneumoconiosis and smokers

centrilobular

21

____ emphysema involves the alveolar duct and alveoli but spares the prox respiratory bronchioles

paraseptal emphysema

22

____: air trapped in dilated spaces below the pleura

subpleural bulae

23

___: air trapped in spaces btw layers of the pleura

blebs

(responsible for spontaneous pneumothorax)

24

family hx is present in ___ bronchial asthma

extrinsic

25

skin test is ___ for extrinisic astha

positive

26

___ asthma is present in children ****

extrinsic

(can grow out of it)

27

___: whorls of shed epithelium in asthma

curschmann's spirals

28

____: crystalloid of eosinophilic membrane protein in asthma

charcot - leyden crystals

29

cc_____: characterized by a horse, high pitched cough

acute largyngeotrachitis

30

*** etiology of acute laryngeotrachitis

MCC is streptococcus
haemophilus
or viruses

31

cc___: inflam at all levels of the bronchial tree

bronchitis

32

*** pathology of bronchitis

exudative infiltrate of neutrophils and fibrin due to chems, bacteria, viruses, cell infiltration, and congestion

33

*** cc_____: a patchy consolidation of acute inflammation arising in the bronchus and extending focally into the lung

bacterial pneumonia

34

*** MCC organisms that cause acquired pneumonia is ____

*** MCC organism that causes nosocomial pneumonia is ____

acquired: streptococcus pneumonia in 80%

Nosocomial: E. Coli and pseudomonas

35

MC location of bacterial pneumonia

lower lobe

(Liquefactive necrosis)

36

*** cc____pneumonia: involved entire lobe of a lung and is NOT patchy

Lobar pneumonia

37

*** most common bact. that affects lobar pneumonia

streptococcus pneumonia

38

***What is the most serious stage in lobar pneumonia pathology

stage of red hepatization (2-4 days) : dry and firm, red protein exudate has lots of neutrophils.

39

MC cause of walking pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia (mycoplasma pneumoniae)

40

*** MCC of atypical pneumonia

mycoplasma pneumonia

41

***cc____: chronic necrotizing infection of the bronchi and bronchioles with a permanent abnormal bronchial dilation (suppurative)

bronchiectasis

42

***Location of beonchiectasis

lower lobe

43

Describe Kartagner's sx that is seen in bronchiectasis

bronchiectasis
sinusitis
sutus inversus

44

*** Name 4 bronchiectasis clinical findings

cough
fever
foul smelling purulent sputum
clubbing fingers

45

cc___: aspiration of infected material will cause a local suppurative process within the parenchyma

pulmonary abscess

(occurs in the L. lung)

46

***The initial focus of primary TB is called ___ in the upper part of the lower lobes or the lower part of the upper lobes

Ghon Focus

(in the hilar nodes)

47

*** location of secondary TB

apex

48

***secondary TB is called ___

miliary TB

49

*** cc___: occurs in large river valley of Midwest and eastern US.

histoplasmosis

histoplasma capsulatum fungus

50

cc___: diffuse pulm dx characterized by leaky pulm cap's proteinaceous deposits in alveoli and atelectasis

adult respiratory distress sx (ARDS)

51

*** MCC of adult respiratory distress sx (ARDS)

septis

52

***CC__: collapse of alveoli by obstruction of the airway or the failure of complete expansion of the lung at birth.

atelectasis

53

***CC____: hyaline membrane disease. Affects infants with predisposing factors (prematurity, prenatal asphyxia, or babies w/ diabetic mothers)

neonatal respiratory distress sx

(decr in pulm surfactant leads to atelectasis )

54

***Cc____: decr in pulm surfactant leads to atelectasis

neonatal respiratory distress sx

55

*** _____: coal worker or black lung disease due to deposition of coal dust

anthrascosis

56

***_____: affects shipyard workers, insulation, and roofing workers who inhale fibers. Damage to lung pleura.

asbestos

57

***_____: (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) type III hypersensitivity immune complex

farmers lung

58

**MC primary cancer is ____

adenocarcinoma

59

*** smokers get ____ carcinoma

squamous cell carcinoma

60

What is the overall most common type of lung cancer

metastatic

61

*** small oat cell carcinoma has secretory products such as (4)

beta lipotropine
ACTH
ADH
Serotonin

62

*** What cancer is associated with asbestos exposure

malignant mesothelioma

63

*** lung is encapsulated by thick, firm, white pleural tumor tissue called ____ or _____ that metastasize to lymph nodes and liver.

psammoma bodies or onion ring